Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language


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5a Verb Morphology
9 Syntax
Introduction
5b Verb Morphology (continued)
10 Lexico-Semantics
1 Phonology
6 More Verb Morphology
11 The Script
  2 Morpho-Phonology  7a Using Affixes 12 The Number System
   3 Basic Morphology 7b Using Affixes (continued) The Lexicon
  4 Case Morphology   8 Adjuncts

 

The Lexicon

Currently, the lexicon lists 16200 stems as derived from 900 roots (see Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 10.1.1 for an explanation of the structure of individual roots and their 18 stems). This represents only a random sampling from the 17 different morpho-semantic classes of Ithkuil roots (see Sec. 10.2 for an explanation of these classes). Additional roots and their stems will be periodically added to this list as the author finds time to convert his handwritten notes. The most recently added roots (August 2008) are marked in blue-colored font.

The reader should be aware that the glosses (i.e., the English translations or definitions) for each of the stems below are at times somewhat arbitrary, as Ithkuil roots and their stems have been conceptualized from the cognitive level up, without regard as to whether they correspond necessarily to an existing word or phrase in English or other languages. As a result, some of the English glosses chosen as representations for the Ithkuil stems are approximations at best. This is especially true for verbal glosses, since the translation of an Ithkuil verbal formative is usually dependent on the specific Conflation, Format or Derivation (see Sec. 5.4).

Ideally, the best way to represent the meanings of Ithkuil stems would be to use a semantic “meta-language” comprised of a closed set of semantically universal (or near-universal) “primitives” to create semantic “formulas” which define the use of a particular stem. (The design and use of such a meta-language to translate the meanings of words from one language to another can be found in the writings of linguist Anna Wierzbicka.) However, the author has chosen not to pursue such an effort for the sake of time, as such an analysis for all of the 3600 roots and their 64,800 stems would likely take decades to complete.

In regard to the list below, note that in some cases both a nominal (i.e., noun) and verbal gloss have been provided, while in others only one or the other is present. Nevertheless, the reader should keep in mind at all times that Ithkuil stems always convey both a nominal and verbal meaning, as explained in detail in Section 2.6.1.

 

CLASS 1 ROOTS: numerical concepts, quantification, comparison, mathematics

H-Š ‘WHOLE NUMBER/INTEGER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a (whole) number, numeral, digit, integer

Same as INFORMAL stems but applied to formal, authoritative, permanent context as per Section 3.7

2. having more than one aspect; multifaceted

3. numerical series/sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. multiply (by)

1. divide (by)

2. consisting of more than instance; multiple instance(s) of

2. having more than one part; consisting of parts; non-unitary; non-unified

3. exponential/logarithmic progression

3. negative exponential/logarithmic progression

 

L-S   ‘ONE/UNITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. one

1. single entity / single / singular

2. (something) alone/lone/sole

2. (something) isolated / apart / separate

3. (something) unique

3. 9something) independent / self-reliant / self-sufficient

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. unit (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

1. unify/unite; unit (in terms of being indivisible)

Same as above 3 stems in terms of there being no other instance/example thereof

Same as above 3 stems in terms of entity being indivisible

2. alone/lone/sole (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

2. alone/lone/sole (in terms of being indivisible)

3. unique (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

3. unique (in terms of being indivisible)

EXAMPLES OF MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  individual(ity), solitude, lonely, loneliness

 

K-S   ‘TWO/DUALITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set of two / a duo; to be two in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make dual / having 2 uses or aspects / bi- / twofold

3. second one in a sequence; be/make second in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. twice the number of something; to double / multiply by two

1. half; halve / divide by or into two

2. two times [= iterations] / twice; to be/make/do twice

2. be of or make into two parts; bifurcate(d)

3. to the second power / squared; to square / raise to the second power

3. to the negative second power / inverse square; to divide by the square of

 

N-S   ‘SEVEN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 7 / a septet; to be 7 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make seven-faceted / having 7 uses or aspects / septi- / sevenfold

3. seventh one in a sequence; be/make seventh in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 7 times the number of something; to septuple / multiply by 7

1. a seventh / divide by 7 or into 7 parts

2. 7 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 7 times

2. be of or make into 7 parts; separate(d) into 7 parts

3. to the 7th power; raise to the 7th power

3. to the negative 7th power; to divide by the 7th power of

THE ABOVE PATTERN FOR ‘TWO’ AND ‘SEVEN’ APPLIES TO THE REMAINING NUMBER ROOTS AS FOLLOWS:
Š-S     ‘3’
P-S    ‘4’
Ţ-S    ‘5’
T-S    ‘6’
X-S    ‘8’
F-S    ‘9’
M-S   ‘10’
R-S    ‘100’
Q-S    ‘10,000’
Ç-S   ‘100,000,000’
Ċ-S    ‘10 QUADRILLION’


CLASS 2 ROOTS: intellectual concepts, thought, ideation

H-P   ‘FACT/KNOW/LEARN/UNDERSTAND/EXPERTISE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ontological fact;  observe/notice an ontological fact

1. study/practice [= formal process to acquire skill or knowledge]

2. epistemological/conventionalized fact; know fact

2. realize/understand/comprehension via act of insight

3. experience/proficiency [= know via familiarity]

3. understand [= know via sharing/communication of knowledge]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or faculty of knowing

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the fact itself, the thing known

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or faculty of study/understanding

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the fact itself, the thing studied or understood

INFORMAL Stem Derivations:  find out, discover, determine, wisdom
FORMAL Stem Derivations:  learn, insight, enlightenment, education, school, scholar, student

 

H-T  - ‘(CRIMINAL) LAW/ADJUDICATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. statute, a particular law

1. act of official law enforcement (enforcement authority + manifested act of enforcement/administration)

2. applicability of a statute, law to a particular situation or geopolitical area, rule of law

2. jurisdiction/applicability of enforcement powers to particular situation or geopolitical area

3. investigate an alleged violation of law; act of criminal investigation

3. try/adjudicate a criminal complaint, go to trial

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. statement (the wording) of a law or statute

1. application of, or compliance with a law or statute

1. authority to enforce law or statute

1. act/manifestion of enforcing/administering law or statute

2. applicability of a statute or law

2. state of being subject to, or required to obey/ comply w/ a statute or law

2. jurisdiction of law enforcement powers

2. state of being subject to the jurisdiction of a law enforcement entity

3. gather material evidence as part of criminal investigation, e.g., questioning of witnesses, viewing of records, inspecting clues and material evidence

3. act by law enforcement for purposes of criminal identification or apprehension, e.g., interrogation or component of sting-type operation, or legal “trap” set up

3. presentation of evidence in support of alleged crime; prosecution

3. formal weighing of evidence by judge or jury

Morphological Derivations: code of law, rule of law, rule on an adjudicatory matter, verdict, justice
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  obtaining of warrant/authorization to detain, seizure/detention of suspect, interrogation of suspect, gathering of evidence, arrest, detention in jail cell, indictment, preparation of prosecution, incarceration

SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  stake-out/surveillance, reconnaisance, infiltration of mole, component of sting operation, identification of suspect

 

K-P   ‘GOOD/BENEFICIAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. good [= beneficial to context]

Same as INFORMAL stems but applied to concrete, range-of-moment tangible contexts, whereas INFORMAL stems are applied to general, metaphysical contexts.

2. good [= morally right; beneficial metaphysically]

3. good [= advantageous/effective]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act, event or situation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on desired outcome/reward/benefit

 

K-T   ‘QUESTION/INQUIRY/ANSWER/RESPONSE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. question & answer [statement requesting information + the answer/reply/response thereto]

1. inquire/inquiry + answer

2. query/investigate [investigative act + discovery made]

2. research + findings

3. ponder/introspect [self-questioning + conclusion]

3. analyze + results of analysis

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. question [statement requesting information]

1. response/reply/answer [information desired or given]

1. inquire/inquiry

1. answer [i.e., result of inquiry]

2. query

2. answer (to query) [i.e., cause/reason for what is being looked into or investigated]

2. research

2. finding(s)/discovery made via research

3. ponder/introspect; to question oneself mentally

3. conclusion [(desired) result of self-analysis]

3. analyze

3. conclusion/results of analysis

Morphological derivations:  problem; solution; solve; resolution; resolve; elucidate

 

L-T   ‘DEITY / SPIRITUAL ENTITY / SUPERNATURAL ENTITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (a) spirit / supernatural entity

1. angel

2. deity / god / “overseer” spirit

2. God / Supreme Being / Creator deity

3. demon

3. the Devil / Satan

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to male gender

same as above 3 stems referring to female gender

same as above 3 stems referring to male gender

same as above 3 stems referring to female gender

 

P-Q    ‘REMEMBER/RECALL/MEMORY/RECORD’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. memory; remember (= recall) [whether unwilled/affective or self -willed/voluntary]

1. trace/track/vestige

2. retain / retention of something past into present

2. memorial (object/action formally recognizing or acknowledging something/someone past)

3. remember [= commit to memory] / memorize

3. to record / a record

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. a memory itself (i.e., the content thereof)

1. faculty of memory/recall (i.e., the process of using one’s memory)

same as above 3 stems with focus on that which the physical manifestation memorializes or gives evidence/remembrance of

same as above 3 stems with focus on the object/event/physical manifestation itself which conveys the memory or record

2. a memory retained or kept fresh (i.e., the content thereof)

2. a memory retained or kept fresh (i.e., the process thereof)

3. thing remembered or memorized [=event/act/situation/state, etc. committed to memory]

3. process of committing something to memory

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  recollect(ion), remind, memorize, memento, monument, archive, commemorate, commemoration, souvenir/keepsake, relic, to bear in mind, ponder/relish a memory, sear into one’s memory

 

PŠ-K     ‘FANTASTIC OR IMAGINARY CREATURE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fantastic or imaginary creature/beast

1. mythological/symbolic creature/beast

2. winged fantastic creature/beast

2. legendary being/creature/beast, allegedly real

3. reptilian/saurian fantastic creature/beast

3. alien/extraterrestrial being

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body or presence of creature/beast itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the mind, personality, character, or interaction/communication with the creature/beast

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body or presence of creature/beast itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the mind, personality, character, or interaction/communication with the creature/beast

SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 1: 
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  5) dragon
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  centaur, sphinx, satyr, unicorn, chimera, Phoenix, Scylla, Pegasus
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  vampyre, werewolf, yeti,

 

R-K   ‘THOUGHT/IDEA/REASON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. think / cogitate + thought or idea cogitated

1. to reason / use logic + content of reasoning

2. consider + idea considered

2. analyze + object of analysis

3. propose + argument or idea proposed

3. abstract (= to mentally construct) + concept

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. think / cogitate; an act of thinking

1. a thought / an idea

1. to reason / use logic; act of reasoning

1. object of reasoning

2. consider; an act of consideration

2. a thought or idea considered

2. analyze; act of analysis

2. object of analysis

3. propose / posit

3. a proposition or argument

3. to abstract / conceive / conceptualize; act of abstraction or conception

3. concept

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: ponder, deliberate/deliberation, plan, contemplate, theory, hypothesis, deduce/deduction, postulate, infer(ence), judge, conclude/conclusion

S-T  ‘MIND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mind / mental (faculty + use)

1. sentience / capacity for self awareness and self-identity + act of self-reflection

2. perception / awareness (faculty + use)

2. conscious + subconscious mind

3. instinct (faculty + practice)

3. intellect / wits /mind as efficacious tool

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. mental faculty / mind

1. application of mental faculty; act of mentation / use one’s mind

1. feeling of sentience

1. act of self-reflection

2. faculty of perception or awareness

2. use of perception or awareness; to perceive / be aware of

2. conscious mind

2. subconscious mind

3. instinct

3. instinctual act; to act instinctively

3. intellect; use one’s intellect

3. product of one’s intellect / intellectual feat

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: philosophy, metaphysics

 

ST-K   ‘COMPARISON/MEASUREMENT/WEIGH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. compare/contrast

1. measure

2. discriminate/distinguish

2. discern

3. “weigh”/ponder choice/pro-con analysis

3. relate/collate/determine relationships between

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose or outcome

 


CLASS 3 ROOTS: concepts relating to change and causation

H-C      ‘WEATHER CONDITION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (current) weather condition

1. adverse weather condition

2. amenable weather condition (warm seasons)

2. adverse weather condition (warm seasons)

3. amenable weather condition (cold seasons)

3. adverse weather condition (cold seasons)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to condition itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems referring to condition itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to effect/impact

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES: climate, the weather, clime
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  mild, balmy, sunny, warm, still/calm, gently breezy
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  brisk, cool, clear, still/calm, crisp, light snowfall, drizzle
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 2: mugginess, heat, drought, summer rainstorm, summer flood, mud, hurricane/
cyclone/typhoon, smog, hot wind
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  fog/mist, cloudy/overcast, wind, rain, snow, blizzard, rainstorm, tornado/twister, flood

 

K-C  - ‘BAKE/SOMETHING BAKED’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. bake (something); something baked [method + result]

Same as INFORMAL stems except that context is that of a commercial venture, i.e., food for sale, as in a restaurant or grocery store

2. oven [= environment or primary infrastructure used for baking]

3. baking pan [= primary supporting interface for manipulating the food being baked]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bake; baking (as a cooking method)

1. food cooked by baking; something baked

2. oven (as primary baking environment)

2. oven (as functional heating/cooking means)

3. baking pan (as supporting interface within the oven)

3. baking pan (as primary accessory/tool needed for manipulating, removing, shaping the baked food)

Derivatives:  baked goods, bakery, baker
The following roots follow the same model as the above:
T-C  roast
P-Ċ  toast
Š-Č  fry
F-C  griddle
T-Ċ  smoke
Ķ-Č  sun-dry
X-C  sautee
TL-Ċ  simmer
T-Č  boil
S-C  steam
ŢL-Ċ  parboil
Č-Č  stew
R-C  brew
KL-Ċ  marinade
Ţ-Č  broil
L-C  grill
PL-Ċ  barbecue
H-Č  poach
N-C  pressure-cook
XL-Ċ  slow-cook (e.g., in crockpot, Dutch oven, claypot, Tandoori pot, etc.)
N-Č  flash-fry
Ļ-C  sear
FL-Ċ  non-heat related method of food preparation, e.g., preparing sushi, making a peanut butter sandwich, etc.

 

L- Č ‘BINARY REVERSAL / POLARITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. switch to opposing or complementary value

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Sec. 3.7.

2. switch or reverse [linear] direction

3. toggle between active/positive or inactive/negative state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. set to positive, primary, or initial value

1. set to negative, secondary, or complementary value

2. change current course or direction

2. reverse course or direction

3. active / activate / turn on / render active / on / positive state

3. inactive / deactivate / turn off / render inactive / off / negative state

 

M-C  TOOL/INSTRUMENT

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tool, instrument, implement as extension of bodily appendage(s) (e.g., as per force, strength, precision, reach, pressure, instrument as labor-saving or efficiency-increasing means etc.)

1. utensil, specialized implement for assisting in refined task

2. tool, instrument as means of “defying nature” (e.g., wheel, wedge, fulcrum, etc.

2. mechanical/motorized/electric/electronic implement/device

3. supply-like resource/implement used by itself or in  association with specific tool (e.g., nail, tack, clothespin, hook)

3. supply-like resource/implement used as fuel or input for mechanical/electrical/electronic implement/device

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Morphological Derivatives:  equipment, gear (collection of associated tools/supplies), apparatus, appliance, paraphernalia, machine
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 1: awl, pliers, screwdriver, wrench, pick, shovel/spade, chisel, file, stick/pole/bar
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  wheel, jack, wedge, fulcrum, pulley, sling, lever, gear, spool
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 3: nail, tack, clip/fastener, hook, screw, bolt, nut, piece of wire, screwdriver bit/head
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  anvil, fork, spoon, scissors, vice/clamp, plane, saw, tweezers, puncher
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  drill, power saw, engine/motor
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  drill bit,

 

M-Č   ‘SWITCH/ALTERATION BETWEEN MULTI-VALUED SETTINGS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. switch to a different value or setting

Same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to permanent, authoritative, formal contexts or to social or analogical contexts

2. veer, change course

3. change to a less active or more active setting; increase or decrease intensity or setting

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. switch to higher/greater value or setting

1. switch to lower/lesser value or setting

2. change to more difficult, dangerous, or unpredictable course

2. change to easier, safer, or more predictable course

3. increase to higher/stronger intensity

3. decrease to lower/weaker intensity

 

P-C   ‘GROWTH/CULTIVATION/HUSBANDRY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. grow; stage of growth

1. stage of plant growth; grow (plant)

2. raise; look after; foster; function as guardian

2. till/cultivate/raise crop; stage of cultivation (e.g., etc.)

3. nurture / provide requirements for growth; husbandry

3. to garden/specialized act of plant nurturage (e.g., prune, graft, weed, etc.)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to (anticipated) result/effect

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to (anticipated) result/effect

Stems of this root are often used with the MAT suffix
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 2:  plow, sow, irrigate, fertilize; hoe, reap, pick, dry, store
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 3:  prune, graft, weed, transplant, thin out
Morphological Derivatives:  shepherd, garden, gardener, field (of crop), crop, harvest, plow/plough, hoe, etc.

 

P-Č ‘LARGE IMPLEMENT FOR COUNTERING GRAVITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ladder [object itself + use]

1. winch/windlass

2. stair

2. expandable boom

3. bridge; span

3. derrick

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  staircase, stairway

 

Q-Č ‘PHYSICAL CONTACT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. physical contact between 2 or more objects [contact + effect]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that the context is specific to physical contact by one’s “default” appendage(s) for volitional physical contact, i.e., hands/fingers, beak, snout, tongue, pseudopod, tendril, tentacle, etc.

2. application of physical pressure/force + effect

3. move or set in motion via physical contact + resulting motion

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems but with focus on physical act of contact

same as above 3 stems but with focus on resulting effect/movement

EXAMPLE DERIVATIONS FROM THESE STEMS: feel, push, stroke, caress, tap, nudge, hit, strike, slap, punch, shove, press, rub, knock over, fall [due to being pushed], injure [via striking], etc.

 

X-Č   - WEAPON

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hand-held or hand-thrown bladed weapon for cutting or stabbing [object + use]

1. ballistically launched projectile [projectile + use]

2. pointed-tipped handheld or propelled weapon for piercing [object + use]

2. explosive/incendiary substance/device [substance/device + use]

3. blunt force-driven hand-held or propelled weapon [object + use]

3. gaseous/chemical/other weapon [substance + use]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bladed weapon itself

1. use/function of bladed weapon

1. ballistically launched projectile

1. use/function of ballistically launched projectile

2. pointed-tipped handheld or hand thrown weapon itself

2. use/function of pointed-tipped handheld or hand thrown weapon

2. explosive/incendiary substance/device

2. use/function of explosive/incendiary substance/device

3. blunt force-driven hand-held or hand-thrown weapon itself

3. use/function of blunt force-driven hand-held or hand-thrown weapon

3. gaseous/chemical/other weapon

3. use/function of gaseous/chemical/other weapon

SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 1:  1) dagger  2) switchblade  3) axe  4) bayonet  5) sword  6) scimitar
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  arrow, lance, spear, javelin, harpoon
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  mace, club, hammer, catapult fodder, shot from slingshot. cudgel
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  bullet, shell, shrapnel, cannonball, shot, rocket, self-propelled missile
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  bomb, grenade, plastic explosive, firecracker, dynamite stick
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  gas irritant/poison, poison chemical vapor, liquid irritant/poison, radioactive compound used as weapon

NOTE:  In Ithkuil, guns, catapults, slings and all other firearms or devices for shooting/hurling projectiles utilize Degree 1 of the UTE suffix ('tool/implement for doing X'), as it is not the firearm/shooting device that kills but the projectile shot/fired from it. Thus a gun is a "bullet-implementer".  Care must be taken in assigning appropriate noun Cases or verbal Formats to stems associated with ballistic aerial weapons to distinguish the fact that it is the projectile that is the actual "weapon" and not the object it was fired/projected from. This is the good old "shoot bullets" vs. "shoot guns" vs. "shoot bullets from a gun" vs. "shoot him with a gun" vs. "shoot him with bullets from a gun" problem . This which would translate into Ithkuil/Ilaksh as "I bulleted him due to/enabled by a gun" or incorparatively as "I gun-bulleted him" using either the RESULTATIVE Format (literally translating as "I bulleted him as a result of concurrently gun-activating") or the INSTRUMENTATIVE Format (literally translating as "I bulleted him by the enabling means of gun-activating").


CLASS 4 ROOTS: concepts relating to the physical attributes of organic matter

C-M  ‘SENSE OF TASTE / THE TASTE OF SOMETHING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to taste a taste (taste faculty + flavor tasted)

1. to taste for an anticipated/expected flavor

2. tongue/palate (tissue containing taste buds + taste buds themselves)

2. instrument/device for detecting flavor + flavor detected

3. imagine a taste (act + the flavor imagined)

3. create/manufacture a flavor + flavor created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to taste; faculty of taste

1. flavor

1. to taste

1.

2. tongue/palate  (as sensory organs of tasting)

2. taste bud

2. instrument for detecting flavor

2. flavor detected via instrument

3. imagine a taste in one’s mind

3. an imagined taste

3. create/manufacture a flavor

3. flavor created

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  tasty, savory, flavorful
SSD Derivatives:  1) bitter 2) chemical-like taste 3)  salty  4) foul/rancid taste 5) sweet  6) sweet & sour  7) sour 8)  hot (= spicy)  9) umami

 

C-Ņ   ‘SPECIALIZED VOLITIONAL BODILY SOUNDS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-linguistic sound made by mouth (i.e., tongue, teeth, lips)

1.  consonant

2. non-linguistic sound made from throat or vocal chords

2. vowel

3. sound made by non-oral, non-vocal part of the body

3. phoneme

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act of producing the sound

Same as above 3 stems referring to the sound itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to act of producing the sound

Same as above 3 stems referring to the sound itself

SSD Derivations from Informal Stem 1:  1) whistle 2) hum 3) “raspberry” 4) hoot/whoop 5) non-avian animal call 6) bird call 7) scream 8) click-sound (i.e., w/ ingressive airstream) 9) non-phonemic consonantal gibberish sound

SSD Derivations from Informal Stem 3:  1) slap 2) rubbing sound 3) footfall (--> stomp) 4) snap of fingers 5) finger tap 6) toe/foot tap 7) suction-based sound (e.g., “armpit fart”) 8) knuckle crack  9) other joint cracking

 

Ċ-N   ‘IN-LAW/FOSTER RELATIONS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of parent/child in-law relationship

1. member of foster family

2. male member of parent/child in-law relationship

2. male member of foster family

3. female member of parent/child in-law relationship

3. female member of foster family

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. parent in-law

1. child in-law

1. foster parent

1. foster child

2. father in-law

2. son in-law

2. foster father

2. foster son

3. mother in-law

3. daughter in-law

3. foster mother

3. foster daughter

 

Ç-M   ‘LOWER ORDER LIFE FORM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. lower-order life form (i.e. non-vertebrate)

same as INFORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, fuel, material, etc.)

2. microbe

3. non-microbial animal

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bacterium

1. soft-bodied animal (e.g., jellyfish, sponge, slime mold)

2. virus

2. exoskeletal animal (e.g., insect, arthropod, crustacean)

3. protist

3. endoskeletal animal

 

Ç-Ņ    ‘HEAR(ING)/SOUND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hear a sound; aural faculty + sound heard

1. listen to a (specific) sound / discern aurally a (specific) sound

2. ear (aural organ + physical part of body, i.e., Spanish oído + oreja)

2. aural instrument / device for detecting sound waves + sound detected

3. imagine a sound (act + sound)

3. create or manufacture an odor + odor created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to hear; aural faculty

1. sound

1. listen

1. (selected) sound

2. ear (aural organ)

2. ear (body part)

2. aural instrument

2. sound detected via aural instrument

3. imagine a sound / hear in one’s mind

3. imagined sound

3. create or manufacture a sound

3. sound created

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: speaker, megaphone, telephone, stereo, microphone, hearing aid

 

F-N  ‘COUSIN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cousin [male or female]

1. step-cousin [male or female]

2. male cousin

2. male step-cousin

3. female cousin

3. female step-cousin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s mother]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s father]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s stepmother]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s stepfather]

2. male cousin [related through one’s mother]

2. male cousin [related through one’s father]

2. male cousin [related through one’s stepmother]

2. male cousin [related through one’s stepfather]

3. female cousin [related through one’s mother]

3. female cousin [related through one’s father]

3. female cousin [related through one’s stepmother]

3. female cousin [related through one’s stepfather]

 

FL-Ņ    ‘TYPES OF HARD OR NON-LIVING BODILY TISSUES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tooth

1. head hair

2. fingernail/toenail/claw

2. whisker / facial hair

3. hard growth of skin (e.g., wart, corn, callus, bunion, scar)

3. pubic/armpit hair

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical tissue itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose, or effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical tissue itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose, or effect/impact

mustache, beard, sideburn, bald
incisor/fang, bicuspid, molar
wart, corn, callus, bunion, scar

 

H-N   ‘NUCLEAR FAMILY MEMBER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. nuclear family member

1. non-sanguine family member

2. male family member

2. non-sanguine male family member

3. female family member

3. non-sanguine female family member

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. parent

1. child/offspring

1. step-parent

1. step-child

2. father

2. boy child / son

2. step-father

2. step-son

3. mother

3. girl child / daughter

3. step-mother

3. step-daughter

 

KS-Ņ    ‘COMPONENT OF BODY’S RESPIRATORY/CARDIO-VASCULATORY SYSTEM

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. heart

1. lung

2. vascular component

2. component of respiratory system

3. (an amount of) blood

3. oxygen

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

SSD Affix with Informal Stem 1:  ventricle, atrium, vein, coronary artery, capillary,
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 2:  blood vessel, vein, artery, capillary, aorta, vena cava
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1: bronchus, bronchiolus, alveolar sac
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 21:  nasal cavity, trachea

 

Ķ-Ņ   ‘ABDOMEN/THORAX/TORSO/CHEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. thorax/torso [both body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “mid-section” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. abdomen/midsection (lower front half of torso) [both body part and function]

3. chest (upper front of torso) [both  body part and function)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

NOTE:  Due to the bilateral symmetry of this body part, the above stems are often used in the DUPLEX configuration, the UNIPLEX form referring only to one side of the bodily part or the other.

 

M-Ņ  ‘CLASSES OF ANIMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. animal of land or air (i.e., “terroid”)

Same as INFORMAL holistic stems but domesticated, tamed, captive, or bred

2. waterlife (i.e., “aquoid”)

3. amphibian

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems but domesticable

same as above 3 stems but undomesticable

same as above FORMAL stems but as pets or tamed

same as above FORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, breeding stock, etc.)

 

K-N   ‘GENDER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. gender

1. psycho-sexual identity

2. neuter

2. asexual / psychologically neuter

3. androgynous

3. sexual preference/orientation

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male (anatomically)

1. female (anatomically)

1. masculine (psycho-behaviorally)

1. feminine (psycho-behaviorally)

2. sterile (incapable of procreation)

2. genderless (neither male nor female anatomically)

2. celibate/chaste

2. asexual; devoid of sexual desire

3. androgyne / androgynous (difficultyfor others to determine gender)

3. hermophrodite / hermophroditic (anatomically both male & female)

3. sexual preference or orientation psychologically

3. sexual orientation in actuality (as manifested)

SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, bisexual with preference for heterosexuality, bisexual with preference for homosexuality, homosexual with preference for functioning in male role, homosexual with preference for functioning in female role

 

KL-Ņ    ‘BODILY JOINT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. bodily joint (physical joint + function); to flex joint

1. specialized bodily joint/juncture

2. ball & socket-type bodily joint

2. vertebra

3. standard-type joint

3. wrist/ankle/waist (lateral circular joint type)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to external hard or knob-like external body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to internal joint and its function/process

Same as above 3 stems referring to external hard or knob-like external body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to internal joint and its function/process

hip/flex hip, shoulder, flex shoulder
finger joint, toe joint, knee, elbow
spinal column; flex spine
wrist, ankle waist

 

KŞ-Ņ    ‘NECK’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. neck (as gestalt entity) [body part + function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “neck” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, complex 3-dimensional form, plant, etc.

2. neck (as bodily support/swivel point for head) [body part + function

3. neck (as narrowest, most vulnerable body part) [body part + function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. neck as physical body part

1. neck as functional body part

2. neck as bodily support/swivel point for head

2. neck as functional support/swivel point for head

3. neck as physically narrowest, most vulnerable body part)

3. neck as functionally narrowest, most vulnerable body part

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  nape, throat (i.e., front part of neck)

 

L-M  ‘SIBLING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sibling

1. step-sibling

2. brother

2. step-brother

3. sister

3. step-sister

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. half-sibling [shared mother]

1. half-sibling [shared father]

1. step-sibling [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

1. step-sibling [stepfather is father of other sibling]

2. half-brother [shared mother]

2. half-brother [shared father]

2. step-brother [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

2. step-brother [stepfather is father of other sibling]

3. half-sister [shared mother]

3. half-sister [shared father]

3. step-sister [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

3. step-sister [stepfather is father of other sibling]

 

L-N   ‘CLASSES OF WATERLIFE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. skeletal/vertebral waterlife form

Same as INFORMAL holistic stems referring to tamed, domesticated, bred, etc. individual

2. exoskeletal/arthropod form

3. soft-bodied waterlife form

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. jellyfish-like lifeform

1. gilled/finned fish

Same INFORMAL complementary stems referring to tamed, pet, domesticated, bred, etc. individual

2. crustacean

2. “non-standard”-shaped fish (e.g., ray, eel, squid, octopus, etc.)

3. shellfish

3. sea mammal (e.g., whale, seal, walrus, etc.)

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  fisherman, whale hunter, aquarium, fishery, fish hatchery

 

Ļ-Ņ     ‘CLASSES OF LAND/AIR ANIMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mammal

Same as INFORMAL stems referring to domesticated, tamed, bred, pet, etc. individual

2. non-mammalian, non-avian, non-reptilian animal, i.e.,  insect/arthropod/arachnid/worm/mollusk

3. avian or reptilian lifeform

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. insect

1. mollusc

2. worm

2. bird

3. arthropod/arachnid

3. reptile

 

M-L   ‘TRAGICOMIC-BASED VOCAL/FACIAL GESTURE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mouth gesture

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring to deliberate (i.e., volitional) gestures/vocalizations (INFORMAL stems are affective/non-volitional)

2. vocalization

3. facial expression

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. smile

1. frown

2. laugh

2. whine, moan

3. “light up” (referring to one’s face’)

3. crestfallen look, look of dejection

SSD DERIVATIONS:  scowl

N-N   ‘FOOD PLANT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. plant grown/harvested/cultured as food source

1. food dish/serving derived from plant

2. vegetable

2. food dish/serving derived from vegetable

3. fruit

3. food dish/serving derived from fruit

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to plant itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to edible part of plant or plant in edible condition following any necessary processing

Same as above 3 stems referring to serving/dish itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to consumption/ingestion  of the dish

SSD Derivatives for INFORMAL stems:  stem, leaf, seed/nut, pod/fruit, flower, juice, sap, rhizome, root/tuber
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL stems:  soup, stew, salad, sauteed, deep-fried, boiled, steamed, baked, fancy/other style of preparation

 

P-M   ‘SMELL/ODOR’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to smell (= use olfactory sense) + odor smelled

1. examine or inspect via smelling + odor smelled

2. nose (olfactory organ + facial proboscis)

2. device used to detect presence of odor or gas / olfactory instrument + odor detected

3. imagine a smell (act + imagined odor)

3. create or manufacture an odor + odor created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to smell (= use olfactory sense)

1. an odor, a smell; to give off an odor

1. examine or inspect via smelling

1. odor detected via inspection or examination

2. nose (= olfactory organ)

2. nose (= facial proboscis)

2. device used to detect presence of odor or gas / olfactory instrument

2. odor detected via olfactory instrument

3. imagine an odor

3. an imagined odor

3. create or manufacture an odor

3. manufactured odor

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: sniff, aroma, “bouquet”, perfume, stench

 

P-Ņ   ‘STATE OF HEALTH/ILLNESS/WELL-BEING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. state of physical health / physical well-being

1. state of mental health / mental well-being

2. physical illness; sick(ness)

2. mental illness

3. physical injury/wound/lesion/trauma

3. mental trauma

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effect

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effect

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on cause

SSD affix used with Stem 2 of both INFORMAL and FORMAL stem in conjunction w/ the AGC2/7 affix give:  1) nurse 2) emergency technician 3) therapist 4) caregiver 5) doctor 6) surgeon 7) healer 8) “medicine man” 9) medical assistant
Derivations:  madness, craziness, insanity

 

PL-Ņ    ‘THROAT (interior tract of neck)/GULLET’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. throat (= interior respiratory/digestive tract of neck)

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “throat/gullet” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, complex 3-dimensional form, plant, etc.

2. gullet (= tube- or trumpet-shaped digestive conduit from oral cavity)

3. interior chamber of throat (containing pharynx, larynx, plus epiglottal and glottal structures)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

SSD derivatives:  pharynx, larynx, syrinx, epiglottis, glottis, trachea/windpipe, vocal fold/chord, hyoid bone / “Adam’s apple”

 

PS-Ņ    ‘GASTRO-INTESTINAL/UROLOGICAL COMPONENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. gastrointestinal component (body part + function)

1. urological component (body part + function)

2. gastrointestinal process / digestive process / digest(ion) (physical process + nutritive function

2. urological process (physical process + waste elimination function)

3. (amount/piece of) feces, dung, excrement

3. (an amount of) urine, piss, pee

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part/process  itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  gastrointestinal tract
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 1:  esophagus, stomach, guts/viscera/intestine, jejenum, ilium, colon, rectum, small intestine/bowel, anus
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1:  kidney, ureter, adrenal gland, bladder, urethra

 

PŞ-Ņ    ‘PREGNANCY/GESTATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. pregnancy/gestation

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring exclusively to human pregnancy/gestation

2. manifestation of morning sickness

3. contraction during labor

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical condition/state
 

Same as above 3 stems referring to psycho-physiological effect/impact

Morphological Derivatives:  conception, labor, birth/delivery

 

Q-M   ‘HIGHER ORDER ANIMAL LIFE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. higher order being (i.e., large bilateral vertebrate with discrete organs)

1. authorized or officially designated person or animal/beast

2. human, person

2. official, authorized person

3. non-human higher order being or animal, beast

3. pet or zoo animal/beast

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male higher order being

1. female higher order being

1. authorized male animal/ or officially designated man or beast

1. authorized or officially designated woman or female animal/ beast

2. human male, man

2. human female, woman

2. official, authorized man

2. official, authorized woman

3. male higher order animal or beast

3. female higher order animal or beast

3. male pet or zoo animal/beast

3. female pet or zoo animal/beast

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: boy, girl, child [developmentally, not as offspring], population, group of people, crowd, mob, assembly, people, masses, elder, crone, adult, youth, adulthood, fetus, adolescent, zoo

R-N  DČ-  ‘HAND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hand (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “hand” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. hand (as holder, grasper, striker) [both physical body part and function]; to grasp-->hold

3. leg (as manipulator, handler, feeler) [both physical body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. hand as physical body part

1. function of hand as “feeler”- focuser of body’s tactile sense

2. hand as main tool of body

2. function of hand as holder/grasper

3. hand as limb/extension

3. function of hand as manipulator/handler

SSD derivatives:  1) fist 2) palm 3) knuckle 4) hand as flat “blade”, e.g., for karate chop 5) finger 6) thumb 7) “butt” of hand [=lower part of palm] 8) fingernail  9) bottom side of fist [as when pounding fist onto table; for individual fingers, use following affixes + SSD/5 for ‘finger’:  index = “main finger” or “first finger”, middle finger = “mid-finger” or “long finger” or “2nd finger”, ring finger = “3rd finger”, pinkie = 4th finger or small(est) finger

 

R-Ņ    ‘COLLATERAL FAMILY MEMBER/RELATIVE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. paternal collateral relative

1. maternal collateral relative

2. paternal male collateral relative

2. maternal male collateral relative

3. paternal female collateral relative

3. maternal female collateral relative

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. paternal aunt/uncle

1. paternal aunt/uncle

1. maternal nephew/neice

1. maternal aunt/uncle

2. paternal uncle

2. paternal uncle

2. maternal nephew

2. maternal uncle

3. paternal aunt

3. paternal aunt

3. maternal neice

3. maternal aunt

 

R-M  ‘NUTRITION / NUTRITIONAL CONSUMPTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. food and drink; to eat and drink

1. eat a serving of food or drink; to dine

2. food; to eat

2. prepared/cooked food; to eat prepared food

3. drink (i.e., substance drunk); to drink

3. processed drink or spirits; to drink processed drink or spirits

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. eat and drink as biological process

1. food and drink (substances consumed)

same as abvoe 3 stems but with focus on the process of consumption

same as above 3 stems but with focus on the items consumed

2. eat/ingest/consume

2. item of solid food

3. drink/imbibe

3. liquid (to be) drunk

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: cooking, meal, repast, feast, become drunk, gorge(d); chef, cook, brewer

 

Ŗ-N    ‘CLASSES OF MAMMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. marsupial

Same as INFORMAL stems referring to tamed, domesticated, pet, bred, etc. individual

2. egg-laying mammal, ovoviviparous mammal

3. placental mammal

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to male

Same as above 3 stems referring to female

 

Ŗ-Ņ   - ‘INFIRMITY/PHYSICAL DISABILITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. general weakness/infirmity (e.g., age-related or illness-related)

1. acute infirmity, attack, flare-up

2. specific physical disability or abnormality; disabled

2. injury; injure(d)

3. lame, crippled, handicapped, impaired (permanently or chronically)

3. impaired; decreased mobility (temporary)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

 

S-M    ‘LEG’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. leg (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. leg (as support) [both physical body part and function]

3. leg (as ambulator, extension, limb) [both physical body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. leg as physical body part

1. leg as manipulating body part (e.g., for kicking, stomping)

2. leg as or balancing appendage for body

2. leg as support against gravity

3. leg as limb/extension

3. leg as ambulatory organ

SIMILAR PATTERNS EXIST FOR:
Ņ-N  ‘TAIL’
K-Ņ   ‘FOOT’ -->   SSD Derivatives:  heel, ball of foot, upper side of foot, arch, plantar fascia, achilles tendon

 

S-N  ‘PLANT TYPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. branched/leaved plant including its fruit or flower

same as FORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, fuel, material, etc.)

2. grass-like or stalked plant including its seed or grain

3. moss-like or fungal plant or mold including its spore or cyst

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. branched/leaved plant

1. flower, fruit, or blossom of branched/leaved plant

2. grass-like or stalked plant

2. seed, grain, or kernel of grass-like or stalked plant

3. moss-like or fungal plant or mold

3. spore or cyst of moss-like or fungal plant or mold

SSD for Stem 2:  1) grass  2) ground-covering plant 3) clover  4) weed 5) wildgrass
SSD for Stem 3:  1) lichen  2)  mushroom  3)  mold  4)  slime mold 5) moss  6) non-mushroom fungus

 

S-Ņ     ‘RESPIRATORY PAROXYSM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [act + sound]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that the act/sound is deliberate (i.e., volitional)

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [act + sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [act + sound]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [act]

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [sound]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [act]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [act]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [sound]

Morphological derivations:  clear throat, harrumph, hacking cough, cough up

 

SX-M   ‘MOUTH/ORAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mouth [= oral orifice]

Same as INFORMAL Stems but for non-animal entity or figuratively

2. lip [use of DPX = lips]

3. interior of mouth/oral cavity

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on bodily location/physical aspect

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose, use, function

 

Ş-Ņ    ‘BODY PART’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. body part/component  (e.g., appendage, section, organ, gland, tissue, fluid, etc.)

1. bodily tissue/flesh/sinew

2. bodily organ

2. secondary organ/gland

3. bone

3. bodily fluid/secretion

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  body, corpse
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 3:  1) spine 2) rib 3) skull 4) limb bone (tibia, femur, ulna, etc.) 5) bone of hand/foot  6) “shield” bone (e.g., patella, shoulder blade) 7) hipbone
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1:  1) membrane 2) tendon 3) ligament 4) nerve 5) muscle 6) skin/integument 7) sphincter/valve 8)  marrow 9) fat/gristle
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 2:  1) gonad 2) esophagus 3) adrenal gland 4) bowel/intestine 5) brain 6) lung 7) kidne
y 8) pancreas 9) liver
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 3:  1) tear  2) bile 3) semen 4) pus 5) blood 6) mucus/mucal secretion 7) saliva 8) lymph  9) sweat/perspiration

 

Š-N   ‘NON-SANGUINE RELATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of godparent-godchild relationship

1. adoptive family member

2. male member of godparent-godchild relationship

2. male adoptive family member

3. female member of godparent-godchild relationship

3. female adoptive family member

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. godparent

1. godchild

1. adoptive parent

1. adopted child

2. godfather

2. godson

2. adoptive father

2. adopted son

3. godmother

3. goddaughter

3. adoptive mother

3. adopted daughter

 

Š-Ņ    ‘SOIL/GROUND/DIRT (MIXED ORGANIC + MINERAL)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. dirt/ground/soil [=substance + function as substrate/firmament]

1. peat

2. mud

2. dirt(y)/filth(y) [= soiled, unclean]

3. ground cover [organic-based, e.g., carpet of leaves]

3. mulch/compost/fertilizer

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to substance itself

same as above 3 stems referring to function as substrate/firmament

same as above 3 stems referring to substance itself

same as above 3 stems referring to function as substrate/firmament

 

T-M  ‘BREATHE/RESPIRATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. respire/inhale or exhale; a breath

1. inflate (w/ air)

2. yawn

2. blow (passage of air under pressure through narrow opening)

3. pump (by air)

3. suck/suckle/siphon

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to gaseous compound itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  breathe, pant, gasp, suffocate, suffocation, asphyxiate, asphyxiation, drown

 

T-N   ‘ALIVE/LIVING THING/LIVING BEING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. living thing; be alive / to live

1. domesticated or civilized being

2. [wild] animal (all orders)

2. domesticated animal

3. [wild] plant (all orders)

3. cultivated plant

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male being

1. female being

1. domesticated or civilized male being

1. domesticated or civilized female being

2. male [wild] animal

2. female [wild] animal

2. male [domesticated] animal

2. female [domesticated] animal

3. male [wild] plant

3. female [wild] plant

3. male [cultivated] plant

3. female [cultivated] plant

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: life, vegetation, flora, fauna, wildlife; farm, farmer, breeder, livestock

 

T-Ņ    ‘PLEASURE- or PAIN-BASED VOCALIZATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sigh (affective/non-volitional)

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring to deliberate (i.e., volitional) vocalizations

2. squeal/groan/moan (affective/non-volitional)

3. gasp (affective/non-volitional)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems as triggered by physical or mental  pleasure or satisfaction

Same as above 3 stems as triggered by physical or mental distress, pain, torment, or dissatisfaction

SSD DERIVATIONS:  cry, sob, howl, whimper, murmur
OTHER MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  weep

 

TL-Ņ    ‘COMPONENT OF NERVOUS SYSTEM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. component of CNS

1. brain

2. CNS- eurological process

2. spinal cord

3. component of peripheral nervous system

3. nerve

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

sympathetic nerve, parasympathetic nerve, vegus nerve
neuron, neuron firing, synapse, synaptic uptake, axon, dendrite, glial cell, blood-brain barrier

 

Ţ-N   ‘HEAD’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. head (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. head (as seat of brain/mind) [both body part and function]

3. head (as entity’s primary “interface” area of body)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. head as physical body part

1. head as functional body part

2. head as physical seat of brain/mind

2. head as functional seat of brain/mind

3. head as “top” or “forward” part or “access” point

3. head as vital seat of identity

SSD Derivatives = parts of head 1) cheek  2) chin  3) upper lip [plane between mouth and nose] 4) forehead 5) temple 6) crown of head 6) occipital area [back of head] 7) socket area around eye 8) upper part of back of head 9) cheekbone

 

ŢL-Ņ    ‘MISCELLANEOUS BODY PARTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. buttock

1. haunch

2. breast/teat

2. snout/proboscis

3. navel

3. fin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose or impact/effect

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose or impact/effect

 

X-M   ‘ARM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. arm (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. arm (as holder, support, carrier) [both body part and function]

3. arm (as protective extension of body) [both body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. arm as single body part

1. arm as reacher or manipulator

2. arm as limb (focus on part/whole relation to body)

2. arm as holder/carrier

3. arm as extension of body

3. arm as natural protective/defensive implement of body

 

X-N   ‘VISION/SIGHT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to sight (see + thing seen); sight

1. observe / visually examine + thing seen

2. eye (functional organ + visible facial feature)

2. optical instrument + image

3. visualize / imagine / picture a visual image in one’s mind + image

3. create image / render an image

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. see

1. a sight / image; to project an image

1. visually examine / observe

1. thing observed / visual evidence

2. eye (functional organ)

2. eye (visible facial feature)

2. optical instrument

2. thing observed via optical instrument

3. visualize / envision; act of visualization

3. an image / a vision (in one’s mind)

3. create image

3. image created

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: look (at), view, glimpse, glance, ogle, gawk, stare, spy, espy, peep, voyeur, panorama, scrutinize (visually), camera, telescope, microscope, binoculars, magnifying glass, lens, glasses

 

X-Ņ    ‘BACK/DORSAL AREA OF BODY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. back/dorsal area (both body part and function)

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to the dorsal area of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. lower back/dorsal area (both body part and function)

3. upper back & shoulder blade area

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

NOTE:  Due to the bilateral symmetry of this body part, the above stems are often used in the DUPLEX configuration, the UNIPLEX form referring only to one side of the bodily part or the other.

 

XL-M   ‘SENSE/SENSATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sense/sensation, “feel” / “feeling” [faculty/act of sensing + sensation itself]

1. examine via the senses [both act and result/outcome]

2. sensor / sensory organ [function + sensor itself]

2. sensor(y) device/instrument [both use and device itself]

3. imagine a sensation or feeling / imagined sensation or feeling [faculty/act of sensing + sensation itself]

3. create/induce a sensory experience [both act and result/outcome]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to sense / act of sensing

1. a sensation, a feeling

1. examine via the senses [the act thereof]

1. resulting evidence of senses

2. sense faculty/ability

2. sensor(y) organ

2. sensor(y) device/instrument [the use thereof]

2. sensor(y) device or instrument [the device/instrument itself]

3. imagine a sensation/feeling

3. a mentally imagined sensation

3. create a sensory experience or feeling [the act thereof]

3. sensation/feeling as externally created/induced

 

XL-Ņ    ‘DEGREE OF BODILY SLENDERNESS/FATNESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of slenderness/fatness

same as INFORMAL stems except that degree of particular quality/property is unusual, abnormal, unexpected, or has been changed from expected norm

2. decrease in degree of slenderness/fatness; lose weight; become thin(ner); slenderize

3. increase in degree of slenderness/fatness; gain weight; become fat(ter); fatten up

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring specifically to physical size/girth/volume

Same as above 3 stems referring to psycho-physiological effect/impact

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 
MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  skinny, rail-thin, obese, plump

 

x + cedilla-M  - ‘DISEASE/DISORDER/MALADY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. chronic systemic illness/condition/ailment; to suffer from

1. acute abnormal/unhealthy condition/illness/malady/ailment; “come down with”

2. chronic illness/condition/ailment – infectious in origin; to suffer from a chronic infectious illness

2. infection; infect(ed), to “catch” a disease

3.  chronic illness/condition/ailment – ideopathic, genetic/neoplastic, or unknown origin

3. acute illness/condition/ailment – ideopathic, genetic/neoplastic, or unknown origin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

The following roots follow the same pattern as the above:
PS-M  neurological
PL-M  neuro-muscular/myalgic disorder 
PŞ-M  cardio-vascular disorder 
KL-M peripheral nervous system disorder
KŠ-M  pulmonary disorder
KŞ-M  non-malignant tumorous/neoplastic disorder; non-cancerous growth 
ŠL-N  malignant tumorous /neoplastic disorder; cancer  SSD derivatives:
TL-M  genetic disorder 
ŢL-M  musculo-skeletal disorder 
ŠL-M  lower gastro-intestinal disorder; bowel problem 
PŠ-M  upper gastric disorder; throat/mouth disorder 
SL-N  mid gastric disorder; stomach/esophagal disorder 
KS-N  ocular/eye disorder 
PS-N  nasal disorder 
PŠ-N  mid/inner ear disorder; hearing problem 
PŞ-N  topical skin disorder 
KL-N invasive skin disorder 
KŠ-N auto-immune condition 
KŞ-N blood/hematological disorder 
PL-N  glandular/endocrine disorder 
TL-N  liver disorder  — SSD derivatives:
ŢL-N  cellular/metabolic disorder — SSD derivative: 1) diabetes (Type 2 only)
XL-N  inflammatory disorder
SL-M degenerative tissue disorder
FL-N physical brain disorder (i.e., discernible lesion) — SSD Derivatives:  general dementia, multi-infarct dementia, stroke
ŞL- M  mental disorder (i.e., no discernible lesion) — SSD Derivatives:  1) schizo-affective 2) sociopathic condition 3) schizophrenia 4) personality disorder 5) depression 6) dissociative disorder 7) manic condition, mania 8) unknown disorder 9) bipolar condition
ŞL- N  spinal condition or disorder
FL-M  back pain disorder (neuro-muscular, not spinal)

 

x + cedilla-Ņ    ‘GASTRONOMIC PAROXYSM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [act + sound]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that the act/sound is deliberate (i.e., volitional)

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [act + sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [act + sound]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [act]

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [sound]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [act]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [act]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [sound]

 


CLASS 5 ROOTS: concepts relating to communication, learning and language

K-L   ‘SPEAK/VOICE/ORAL SOUND/INTERPRETATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. vocal utterance / oral sound; utter

1. meaning or interpretation of vocal utterance; to mean or signify

2. talk / speak / spoken utterance [parole]

2. meaning or interpretation of word; to mean or signify

3. rhetorical utterance / express [langue]

3. meaning or interpretation of sentence or phrase; to mean or signify

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical production of sound

same as above 3 stems referring to communication/conveying of content

same as above 3 stems referring to objective meaning, signification or denotation

same as above 3 stems referring to subjective interpretation, connotation or “impact”

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: voice, (a) language, linguistic(s), yell, shout, cry, bark/meow/bleat/neigh, etc., [vocal] message, account, recount, story, tell, eloquence, glib(ness), smooth-talk, rhetoric, speech, dialect, slang

 

KŠ-L   ‘FOOL/CLOWN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fool(ish); dupe

1. town fool, village idiot

2. buffoon, laughingstock

2. clown

3. nerd, dweeb

3. jester

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems in non-serious context of “in fun” or “for laughs”

Same as above 3 stems in poignant, sorrowful, pathetic context

Same as above 3 stems in context of entertainment

Same as above 3 stems in context of parody or as a foil for society

 

Ķ-R  - ‘DESCRIPTION/ACCOUNT/STORY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. description/account; to describe, to informally communicate an account of something [process + contents]

1. narrative story; communicate a story [process + contents]

2. relate/report/recount = communication from memory or observations [process + contents]

2. recitation; recite (=communicate/describe from record or based on memorization) [process + contents]

3. historical narrative / historical account [work itself + contents]

3. fictional narrative / fictional story [work itself + contents]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the process of describing/communi-cating

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to the process of describing/communi-cating

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

 

P-L  - ‘SIGN/MARK/SYMBOL/VISUAL MEANS OF INDICATION/REPRESENTATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sign, signal, gesture, indication (= general indication, not 2-D planar surface bearing graphic/written communication)

1. mark, token, single graphic representation

2. track, print, trail (=naturally produced bodily trace)

2. symbol, emblem, device, insignia

3. identifying characteristic or trait

3. formal representation

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the indicator/sign itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content/meaning thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to the indicator/sign itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content/meaning thereof

 

T-L   ‘WRITE/INSCRIBE/DOCUMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. inscribe [= make written symbol]; written symbol

1. written record / thing containing writing

2. write message; written content

2. document

3. “write” [= compose via writing] / to author

3. a writing / a written work

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical act of inscription

same as above 3 stems referring to communication/conveying of content

ame as above 3 stems referring to the physical document

same as above 3 stems referring to the content

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: book, treatise, manuscript, author, archive

 

T-R   ‘NAME/DESIGNATION/TITLE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. name + referent; to be named, to be called

1. title + referent

2. designation/reference + referent; refer to as

2. formal designation + referent

3. label / nickname + referent; to go by

3. role

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the reference

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the referent

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the reference

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the referent

 


CLASS 6 ROOTS: concepts relating to the physical attributes of matter in general

H-Ġ ‘GAS / FLUME’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cloud/flume of gas/vapor + gas/vapor itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal solid or liquid state

2. cloud/flume of gas as derived from other substance + the derived gas itself

2. thing/object composed of gas + its function/purpose

3. source of a gas

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being in a gaseous state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. cloud/flume of a gas or vapor

1. gas/vapor itself

1. substance in an abnormal solid (i.e., frozen) state

1. substance in an abnormal liquid state

2. cloud/flume of gas as derived from other substance

2. the derived gas itself

2. thing created, molded or manufactured from a gas

2. function/purpose of thing created, molded or manufactured from a gas

3.  natural source of a gas

3.  derived or artificially created source of gas

3. gaseous/vapor state

3. semi-gaseous state (combination or gaseous + non-gaseous state, e.g., as w/ CO2 vapor rising from dry ice)

 

L-B  DIMENSIONAL/SPATIO-TEMPORAL RELATIONS

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of (static) dimensional property (e.g., short/long)

same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to an applied contextual gestalt (e.g., the vicinity, the depths, the expanse, the interregnum, the surroundings, the perimeter, etc.)

2. dynamic decrease in degree of dimensional property (e.g., shorten/ing)

3. dynamic increase in degree of dimensional property (e.g., lengthen/ing)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems applied to spatial context

same as above 3 stems applied to temporal context

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 
THE PATTERN FOR THIS ROOT IS APPLIED TO ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
T-B    ‘PROXIMITY/DISTANCE’
K-B    ‘LENGTH’
Ķ-B    ‘WIDTH (= “SLENDERNESS”)’
Q-B    ‘GIRTH (= 2-DIMENSIONAL X-PLANAR DIMENSION)’
P-B    ‘AMPLITUDE (= 2-DIMENSIONAL Z-PLANAR DIMENSION)’
C-B    ‘ “REACH” (= 2-DIMENSIONAL Y-PLANAR DIMENSION)’
Č-B    ‘DEPTH’
Ċ-B    ‘INTERVAL/GAP’
Ç-B    ‘VOLUME (= 3-DIMENSIONAL SIZE)’
Ņ-B    ‘SHARPNESS/DULLNESS OF A POINT’
M-B    ‘SHARPNESS/DULLNESS OF AN EDGE’
ST-B    ‘SPEED/VELOCITY/ACCELERATION’
Ŗ-B    ‘HEIGHT (= “TALLNESS” – RELATTIVE TO GRAVITY)
H-B    ‘FLATNESS/LEVELNESS (RELATIVE TO GRAVITY)’
KS-B    ‘PERIPHERY/CIRCLE/RING’
PL-B    ‘CONVEXITY/ROTUNDITY’
KŢ-B    CONCAVITY/DEPRESSION
S-B     ‘PERPENDICULARITY/UPRIGHTNESS’
Š-B     ‘PLANARITY/FLATNESS RELATIVE TO OBJECT ITSELF’
Ş-B    ‘STRAIGHTNESS/LINEARITY RELATIVE TO OBJECT ITSELF’
x + cedilla-B    ‘SPHERICALNESS/ROUNDNESS’
KL-B    ‘ “EVEN” (= SMOOTH-SURFACED IN PLANAR CONTEXT)’
TL-B     ‘ “EVEN” (= SMOOTH-EDGED IN LINEAR CONTEXT)’
XL-B    ‘RECTILINEAR/POLYHEDRAL/STRAIGHT-ANGLED’
Ļ-B    ‘ELASTICITY / STRETCH CAPACITY’

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: big/large, small/little, shrink, expand, grow, diminish, huge, immense, tiny, enormous, shallow

 

SX-B  ‘QUALITY OR PROPERTY OF MATTER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of quality/property of matter

same as INFORMAL stems except that degree of particular quality/property is unusual, abnormal, unexpected, or has been changed from expected norm

2. decrease in degree of quality/property of matter

3. increase in degree of quality/property of matter

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 
PS-B      ‘THICKNESS (= VISCOSITY/RUNNINESS)
KŠ-B      ‘TENSENESS (= STRAIN)’
SL-B      ‘SOLIDITY/HOLLOWNESS (= PERMEABILITY)’
SP-B      ‘DURABILITY/FRAGILITY’ (= CAPACITY FOR BEING DAMAGED)
SŢ-B      ‘RESILIENCE/DELICATENESS’ (= CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY)
ŢL-B      ‘TENSENESS (= STRAIN)’
PŠ-B      ‘SMOOTHNESS/ROUGHNESS (= TACTILE COARSENESS)
FL-B      ‘FULLNESS/EMPTINESS’
Ţ-B    ‘FLEXIBILITY/RIGIDITY’
X-B    ‘HARD/SOFT (= MALLEABILITY)’
F-B    ‘TIGHTNESS/SLACK’ (= TAUTNESS)

R-B     ‘WEIGHT/MASS’

 

PL-D   ‘COLOR/HUE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something having a color plus the color

same as INFORMAL stems but tinted/painted/stained, etc. to have other than its natural color

2. something light-colored plus the color

3. something dark-colored plus the color

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. something having a color

1. a color

2. something having a light color

2. a light color

3. something having a dark color

3. a dark color

NOTE: This stem patterns for the above root are a template for all other roots donating a specific color. The following root K-D ‘RED’ provides an example.

 

K-D   ‘RED’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something red plus the color red

same as INFORMAL stems but referring to something tinted/painted/stained red

2. something light-red plus the color light-red

3. something dark-red plus the color light-red

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. something red

1. red

2. something light red

2. light red

3. something dark red

3. dark red

SIMILARLY: T-D  ‘BLUE’, N-D   ‘GREEN’, H-D  ‘YELLOW’, Q-D   ‘ORANGE’, L-D  ‘SKY BLUE’, F-D  ‘PINK’, Ç-D  ‘PURPLE’, R-D   ‘OCHRE’, Ķ-D  ‘ECRU’, Ţ-D  ‘BEIGE/TAN’, Ņ-D   ‘PEACH’, Ļ-D   ‘MAUVE’, Ŗ-D  ‘LAVENDER’, C-D   ‘BURGUNDY’, Ş-D   ‘TEAL’, x + cedilla-D   ‘TURQUOISE’, Š-D   ‘AQUAMARINE’, Č-D  ‘BROWN’, X-D   ‘WHITE’, M-D  ‘BLACK’, S-D  ‘GRAY’, P-D    ‘YELLOW-GREEN’, Ċ-D   ‘MAROON’
The -V1t’ affix provides the following distinctions for all color-stems: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

XL-D   ‘WATER AS SUBSTANCE AND TOOL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (some) water; (be/make) wet / moist(en)

1. (some) water as component of life

2. (some) water in context of usage [both substance and use]

2. (some) water as nourishment; to consume/drink water

3. ice

3. (some) water as biological environment or medium

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. (some) water [substance itself]

1. degree of moisture [from water]

1. (some) water of one’s corporeal body

1. hydration; hydrate

2. water as “tool” (e.g., for washing, for powering a turbine, etc.)

2. wash, clean [with water]

2. act of drinking water; to drink water

2. to water (e.g., plants)

3. ice / freeze

3. float

3. (some) water from a natural environmental setting

3. to inhabit water / live in water / water-dwelling

EXAMPLE DERIVATIONS FROM THIS STEM: bathe, lave, submerge, sink, dunk, immerse, dry, drench(ed), irrigate, swim, the sea (as environment); dehydrate; thirst; freeze

 

KL-D   ‘WATER IN NATURAL MOTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a flow of water / to flow or run

1. river / to flow as a river / to run as a river

2. sprinkle / shower; to sprinkle or shower upon

2. rain(fall); to rain

3. cascade / pour [= free falling of water]

3. waterfall

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. water component of a flow of water

1. channel or course of a flow of water

1. water component of a river

1. channel or course of a river

2. water component of a sprinkle/shower

2. trajectory or course of a sprinkle/shower

2. water component of rain

2. “path” or course of a rain shower

3. water component of a cascade or pouring of water

3. trajectory or course of a pouring of water

3. water component of a waterfall

3. channel or “groove” of a waterfall

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: flood, downpour, to rain “cats and dogs”, brook, stream, rivulet, arroyo, floodplain

 

TL-D   ‘WATER IN STATIC SETTING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. container of water

1. (standing) body of water

2. water/moisture located in confined space

2. ambient/atmospheric water/moisture

3. (something) imbued/drenched with water; waterlogged

3. artificial body of water (e.g., reservoir)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. some water in/from a container

1. holder/container which holds water

1. water component of a body of water

1. the basin or bed of a body of water

2. degree of moisture contained

2. the volume/space occupied by water/moisture

2. water/moisture in the air or atmosphere

2. volume of air(space) containing the water or moisture

3. the water imbued within an object, substance, or substrate

3. the object, substance or substrate imbued/soaked with water

3. water within an artificial body of water

3. the basis or bed of an artificial body of water, e.g., reservoir bed

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  lake, pool, pond, tern, tank, sink, canteen, cistern, puddle, sea, ocean, water vapor

NOTE:  The above three roots associated with water, XL-D, KL-D and TL-D, form the patterns for three parallel roots referring to any liquid other than water:   SL-D,  PŢ-D and  PS-D, respectively.

 

M-G  ‘HORIZONTAL SUPPORTING SURFACE AGAINST GRAVITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. “ground”/firmament

1. floor

2. table-like horizontal flat object / slab

2. table

3. shelf-like flat object

3. shelf

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical gestalt/shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose as functional supporting surface against gravity

same as above 3 stems referring to physical gestalt/shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose as functional supporting surface against gravity

 

L-G    ‘ARTICLE OF CLOTHING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. piece of clothing as covering or fashion; to wear such

1. piece of clothing as part of uniform or costume; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as distinguishing marker or indicator of station; to wear such

2. part of uniform or costume as indicator of station/job; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as ornament or accessory; to wear such

3. part of uniform or costume as ornament; to wear such

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. piece of clothing as covering; to wear such

1. piece of clothing as fashion; to wear such

1. part of uniform as covering; to wear such

1. part of costume as covering; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as distinguishing marker; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as indicator of station; to wear such

2. part of uniform as indicator of station/job; to wear such

2. part of costume as indicator of station/job; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as ornament; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as accessory; to wear such

3. part of uniform as ornament; to wear such

3. part of costume as ornament; to wear such

THE STEM PATTERN OF THIS ROOT APPLIES TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
P-G    ‘SHIRT/BLOUSE’
T-G     ‘PANTS’
Č-G   ‘COAT/JACKET’
Ķ-G    ‘GLOVE’
Q-G    ‘SCARF’
S-G   ‘HAT’
Š-G    ‘FOOTWEAR’
K-G    ‘LEGGING/SOCK’
Ç-G   ‘BELT’
X-G   ‘APRON’
PL-G   ‘COLLAR’
TL-G   ‘NECKTIE/CRAVATTE
KL-G   ‘HELMET’
Ţ-G   ‘SKIRT/KILT’
F-G   ‘DRESS’
PS-G   ‘VEIL’
KS-G   ‘SARI’
Ċ-G   ‘TUNIC’
Č-G   ‘ROBE(S)/TOGA’

 

Ļ-G   ‘PLANETARY BODY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. planet/planetary body

1. The Earth/Terra

2. moon/satellite of planetary body

2. The Moon/Luna

3. other spatial body

3. artificial satellite

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body

Same as above 3 stems referring to human interaction with (i.e., sighting, influence by, speculation upon, contact with, experimentation involving, etc.)

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body

Same as above 3 stems referring to human interaction with (i.e., sighting, influence by, speculation upon, contact with, experimentation involving, etc.)

SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  asteroid, comet, cosmic dust, cosmic gas, cosmic ray, component of Oort Cloud, cosmic string, quantum filament

N-Ġ ‘LIQUID/FLUID’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. drop of liquid/fluid + liquid/fluid itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal solid or gaseous state

2. drop of liquid/fluid as derived from other substance + the derived liquid subtance itself

2. thing/object composed of liquid + its function/purpose

3. source of a liquid/fluid

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being in a liquid/fluid state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. drop of liquid/fluid

1. liquid/fluid subtance itself

1. substance in an abnormal solid (i.e., frozen) state

1. substance in an abnormal gaseous state (i.e., vapor)

2. drop of liquid/fluid as derived from other substance

2. the derived liquid/fluid subtance itself

2. object created, molded or manufactured from a liquid

2. function/purpose of object created, molded or manufactured from a liquid

3.  natural source of a liquid/fluid

3.  derived or artificially created source of a liquid or fluid

3. liquid/fluid state

3. viscous state (quasi-liquid but able to be deformed/shaped; semi-solid)

The stem pattern above also applies to the root P-Ġ  ‘liquid chemical’.

 

R-G   ‘LIGHT / RADIANT ENERGY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ray of sunlight

1. ray of radiant light or energy (non-solar)

2. the Sun / Sol

2. flame / “tongue” of fire

3. star

3. artificial source of light or energy

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. light from a ray of sunlight

1. heat from a ray of sunlight

1. ray of light (non-solar)

1. ray of energy/heat (non-solar)

2. the Sun as light source

2. the Sun as energy/heat source

2. ray of firelight

2. flame as energy/heat source

3. starlight

3. energy of a star

3. lamp light / light from artificial source

3. energy/heat from artificial energy/heat source

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: fire, sunshine, illuminate, light a fire, flare (up), lamp, fireplace; galaxy, heater, to warm, warmth, to cook [= transform by heat], to melt, to smelt, to expose [via illumination], burn

 

SP-G   ‘ROCK/MINERAL-BASED SOIL/GROUND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. stone [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

1. rock(y) [= specific natural embodiment of stone]

2. sand [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

2. gravel

3. clay [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

3. lava [w/ CPT = volcanic rock/lava-based rock]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on substance

Above 3 stems used to identify material nature of the substrate, ground or firmament

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on substance

Above 3 stems used to identify material nature of the substrate, ground or firmament

T-Ġ   ‘(QUASI-)SOLID SUBSTANCE (i.e., non-liquid & non-gaseous)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. elemental/fundamental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a (quasi-)solid material substance/compound + substance/compound itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal liquid or gaseous state

2. elemental/fundamental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a substance/compound derived from a another subtance +  the derived substance itself

2. thing/object composed of a (quasi-)solid material substance/compound + its function/purpose

3. source of a (quasi-)solid material substance / compound

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being (quasi-) solid

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. elemental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a material substance

1. substance/compound itself

1. substance in an abnormal liquid state

1. substance in an abnormal gaseous state

2.  elemental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a substance/compound derived from refinement, distillation or processing of material substance or compound

2. derived substance / compound itself

2. object created, molded or manufactured from a material substance

2. function/purpose of object created, molded or manufactured from a material substance

3. natural source of a (quasi-)solid material substance / compound

3. derived or artificially created source of a (quasi-) solid material substance / compound

3. solid (= hard to the touch)

3. quasi-solid (= non-gaseous and non-liquid but not hard; able to be deformed by touch)

 


CLASS 7 ROOTS: spatial concepts, form and motion

Ċ-Ļ   ‘THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPHEROID SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sphere(oid) [rigid or solid]

1. ball-like form [flexible/mutable or hollow]

2. ovoid / elliptoid / round [rigid or solid]

2. ovoid /elliptoid / round [flexible/mutable or hollow]

3. torus / toroid (hoop/ring-like form with circular/elliptical/oval cross-section) [rigid or solid]

3. torus / toroid [flexible/mutable or hollow]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

F-Ç   ‘COMPONENTIAL PART OF WHOLE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. component/part of something + its function/purpose

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring to a separable/detachable component/part, as opposed to INFORMAL stems which refer to an inalienable or integrated component/part

2. appearance/condition of component/part + its function/purpose

3. component/part as seen in relation to the greater whole

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. component/part itself

1. function/purpose of component/part

2. phsycial appearance/condition of component/part

2. impact/effect of component’s/part’s condition on its function/purpose

3. component/part itself as seen in relation to the greater whole

3. function/purpose of component/part itself in relation to the greater whole

THE ABOVE PATTERN APPLIED TO FOLLOWING ROOTS
Ţ-Ç    ‘front [relative to directional orientation or primary interface]’
Ç-Ç   ‘rear, back part of [relative to directional orientation or primary interface]’
X-Ç   ‘side/flank, lateral area’
x + cedilla-Ç   ‘middle, center (as seen perpendicular to long axis of entity)
S-Ç   ‘middle, center (as seen parallel to long axis of entity)
Ş-Ç   ‘top, peak, summit’
SP-Ç   ‘bottom, lowest part of, foundation’
ST-Ç   ‘upper part or “half”’
SK-Ç   ‘lower part or “half”’
SF-Ç   ‘edge’
SŢ -Ç   ‘interior, inner/internal part of, insides, innards’
SX-Ç   ‘exterior, outer/external part of, outside, “skin”’

 

F-Ļ   ‘VERTICAL ELEVATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. level [= relative vertical elevation]

Same as INFORMAL stems but as applied to buildings and other architectural forms/constructs

2. layer/stratum

3. degree of size/expanse of level relative to adjacent or surrounding level

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. low spot in relative elevation

1. high spot in relative elevation

2. low-layered; deep

2. upper-layered; shallow

3. plateau-like level, abuttmant; loft-like

3. ridge-like formation; crest-like formation

 

H-F   ‘PATH-ORIENTED TRANSLATIVE MOTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. move from one place to another; translative motion (i.e., motion from one place toward another)

1. journey; to travel, traverse, to journey

2. course/way/route/trajectory followed between two points

2. route travelled/traversed on journey

3. move between two points; motion along path from one point to another; to cross/go across from one side to another

3. travel between two points / make a crossing / travel across

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. motion “outward”; go

1. motion “inward”; come

1. go travelling / be off

1. journey toward

2. movement away; go away (= increase distance between two objects)

2. close in / get close(r) (= decrease distance between two objects)

2. travel further away from

2. reach vicinity of / close in on

3. leave (= move away from one point toward some distant point)

3. approach (= approach one point from direction of some distant point)

3. departure; depart

3. arrival; arrive / reach destination

Morphological derivations:  sojourn, set off / set out, set in motion; self-directed movement
THE PATTERN FOR THE ABOVE ROOT IS APPLIED TO ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
P-Ţ   ‘VERTICAL MOTION / ASCENT & DESCENT / UP & DOWN’
S-Ţ    ‘OBLIQUE VERTICAL MOTION’
L-Ţ   ‘PLANAR RANGE OF MOTION’ (= randomly directed movement within/throughout 2-dimensional horizontal plane)
T-Ţ   ‘VERTICAL RANGE OF MOTION’ (= randomly directed movement within/throughout 2-dimensional vertical plane)
SK-Ţ   ‘GENERIC OR OBLIQUE 3-DIMENSIONAL RANGE OF MOTION/3-DIMENSIONAL PERVASIVE MOVEMENT / MOVEMENT THROUGHOUT 3-D VOLUME’
N-Ţ     ‘LINEAR/HORIZONTAL MOTION ALONG Y-AXIS RELATIVE TO TOPICAL REFERENT’
Č-Ţ     ‘LINEAR/HORIZONTAL MOTION ALONG X-AXIS RELATIVE TO TOPICAL REFERENT’
KŢ-F   ‘CIRCULAR MOTION IN HORIZONTAL PLANE’
FL-F   ‘CIRCULAR MOTION IN VERTICAL PLANE’
ŠK-F   ‘GENERIC OR OBLIQUE CIRCULAR MOTION’
ŞQ-F   ‘SPIRAL MOTION ALONG HORIZONTAL PLANE’
ŢL-F   ‘SPIRAL MOTION ALONG VERTICAL PLANE’
ŞK-F   ‘GENERIC OR OBLIQUE SPIRAL MOTION’
KŢ-Ţ   ‘CIRCULAR VECTOR MOTION’ (i.e., “corkscrew” motion)
QŢ-Ţ   ‘SPIRAL VECTOR MOTION (i.e., corkscrew motion with increasing or decreasing amplitude)
X-Ţ     ‘ARC / PARABOLIC MOTION RELATIVE TO GRAVITY’
ST-Ţ   ‘CURVED MOTION / CURVE’
XL-F      ‘SWITCH BACK / VEER’
SL-F      ‘OBLIQUELY LINEAR  MOTION (relative to XYZ grid)

SP-F  ‘2-DIMENSIONAL EXTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG PERIPHERY OR OUTSIDE EDGE’ encircle, surround
Q-Ţ   ‘2-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG BOUNDARY OR INSIDE EDGE’
KL-F  ‘3-DIMENSIONAL EXTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG PERIPHERY OR SURFACE OF’
SL-Ţ   ‘3-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG INTERNAL 3-D BOUNDARY OF’

 

H-Ļ   ‘LONGITUDE / EAST-WEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. east-west axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

1. longitude

2. west axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

2. West longitude

3. east axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

3. East longitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. east-west axial direction or orientation

1. east-west geographical or geopolitical areal designation

1. meridian

1. zero meridian (Greenwich meridian)

2. west direction or orientation

2. west geographical or geopolitical areal designation

2. time zone

2. Western Hemisphere

3. east direction or orientation

3. east geographical or geopolitical areal designation

3. International Date Line

3. Eastern Hemisphere

 

K-Ļ   ‘LATITUDE / NORTH-SOUTH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. north-south axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

1. latitude

2. north axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

2. north latitude

3. south axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

3. south latitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. north-south axial direction or orientation

1. north-south geographical or geopolitical areal designation

1. polar area

1. parallel [= line of latitude]

2. north direction or orientation

2. north geographical or geopolitical areal designation

2. north polar area (Arctic)

2. Northern Hemisphere

3. south direction or orientation

3. south geographical or geopolitical areal designation

3. south polar area (Antarctic)

3. Eastern Hemisphere

 

K-Ţ   ‘ANGULAR STRUCTURE / CORNER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (two-dimensional) angle

Same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to permanent, authoritative, formal contexts or to social or analogical contexts

2. (three-dimensional) vertex

3. angle-based constraint on access or movement

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. interior angle of two-dimensional surface or analog

1. exterior corner/vertex of two-dimensional surface or analog

2. interior vertex/corner of three-dimensional space

2. exterior corner/vertex of three dimensional space

3. corner as constraint

3. corner as opportunity for choice of movement

 

KL-Ç   ‘THREE-DIMENSIONAL BLOCK-LIKE SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cube [solid volume]

Same as INFORMAL stems but as outline edges/frame only, not as solid volumes

2. rectilinear block [solid volume]

3. disc

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

M-Ļ  ‘CURVATURE/BENDING/OPEN LINEAR FORMS OR SHAPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

1. obtuse angle [degree of size/openness + object or bounded space manifesting such an angle]

2. linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

2. acute angle [degree of size/narrownness + object or bounded space manifesting such an angle]

3. linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic) [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

3. mathematically determined form made of lines (e.g., polygon, quadrilateral, etc.) [pattern + object having the pattern]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate [the line itself]

1. object manifesting a linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate

1. obtuse angle [in reference to its size, i.e., degree of openness]

1. obtuse angled object or bounded space

2. linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate [the line itself]

2. object manifesting a linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate

2. acute angle [in reference to its size, i.e., degree of narrowness]

2. acute angled object or bounded space

3. linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic) [the line itself]

3. object manifesting a linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic)

3. mathematically determined form made of lines [the pattern]

3. object manifesting a mathematically determined form made of lines

Morphological Derivatives:  fold, bend, pleat, zig-zag/“sawtooth”/serrated pattern, undulate/undulation, S-curve, wave(s)/wavy, bent, crooked, jagged, serrated, curvature
The above root use PHASE and the iterative series of affixes to specify extent/number/pattern of folds.
SSD Derivatives for INFORMAL Stem 3:  parabola, hyperbola, exponential curve

 

M-Ţ    ‘ACCESS/PASSAGE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. access point / passage; pass through, access

1. doorway (= the access portal itself, not the door which opens/closes off access)

2. passage or infiltration of one substance into another

2. gateway / portal

3. filter / screening [selective access]

3. checkpoint

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. enter / go in / pass within / ingress

1. exit / go out / egress

1. enter (through primary/official entrance/access portal)

1. exit (through primary/official entrance/access portal)

2. infiltrate / imbue / immerse

2. emit / dispense

2. receive (= welcome) ; reception

2. remove / dispel

3. filter through

3. filter out

3. admittance; admit

3. oust / eject

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: door, gate, let in, insert, introduce, take out, remove, penetrate, emanate, emerge

 

N-Ļ  ‘PRESSURE-BASED or REACTION-BASED
or GRAVITATION-BASED EQUILIBRIUM/MOTION/PROPULSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something hovering or floating; for something to hover, float, or be suspended upon (based on equilibrium, via pressure or volume-dispersion, against other medium such as air, water, gas, vapor, etc.) [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

The Formal stems for this root are identical to the Informal roots in meaning, with the distinction of referring specifically to man-made, mechanical means/vehicles/vessels or contexts involving reaction-based (i.e., fuel-driven) propulsion, as opposed to the naturally occurring or non-mechanical contexts implied by use of the Informal stems.

 

2. something hovering or floating; for something to hover, float, or be suspended upon (based on gravitational equilibrium or nullification, e.g. at the top of an arc of trajectory or at a La Grange point) [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

3. something in orbit around another body; to orbit [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as the above 3 stems but with specific reference to the object which hovers, floats, or is suspended Same as the above 3 stems but with specific reference to the act or state of hovering, floating, or suspension

NOTE: this root was added to the lexicon on December 23, 2009

 

P-Ç   ‘INVERSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. orientational inversion

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that context is formal/authorized/permanent/abstract as described in Sec. 3.7

2. unidirectional topological inversion [= mirror-image]

3. three-dimensional topological inversion [= inside-out]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. orientational inversion along y-axis [= backwards]

1. mirror-image inversion along x-axis [= lateral/sideways]

2. mirror-image inversion along y-axis [= backwards]

2. orientational inversion along z-axis [= upside down]

3. orientational inversion along x-axis [= lateral/sideways]

3. mirror-image inversion along z-axis [= upside down]

 

P-Ļ    ‘RECLINE / PRONE POSITION OR ORIENTATION / HORIZONTALITY

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. recline(d) / prone position (relative to long axis of object) / lie (down) / lay (out)

1. horizontal (relative to gravity or plane of the earth’s surface) / orientation perpendicular to direction of gravity

2. recumbent position / position of relaxation relative to gravity --> sprawl, loll

2. occupying position of maximum repose or having a positional or dynamic orientation based on the path of least resistance relative to gravity

3. flush / flat against / position or orientation level with some flat or even firmament / lay flat

3. flatten(ed); collapse(d) or configure(d) to minimum height perpendicular to background firmament

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

 

SF-Ļ   ‘QUASI-TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. strip [solid/rigid]

1. ribbon-like shape [flexible]

2. plane/planar [solid/rigid]

2. sheet-like shape [flexible]

3. tube/cylinder/cylindrical [solid/rigid]

3. tube-like shape [flexible]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

SK-F    ‘SPATIAL ORIENTATION / POSITION / DIRECTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. general spatial position [currently or within context of utterance]; be situated at

1. specific spatial position at “end point”; be situated at “end point” of

2. general orientation (along or relative to directional axes); to “face” [toward]

2. specific orientation toward “end point” of; to “face” squarely

3. general direction/axis of movement; direct/move along axis of

3. specific direction/axis of movement toward “end point” of; to head straight for

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. general position toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

1. general position toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

1. specific position at “one end” of opposed spatial points

1. specific position at “other side” of opposed spatial points

2. general orientation toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

2. general orientation toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

2. specific orientation toward “one end” of opposed spatial points

2. specific orientation toward “other end” of opposed spatial points

3. general direction toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

3. general direction toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

3. specific direction toward “one end” of opposed spatial points

3. specific direction toward “other end” of opposed spatial points

THE ABOVE PATTERN OF STEMS IS APPLIED TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA:
-X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT
-Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD
-Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE
0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS
PL-F   ‘+X/+Y/+Z’
Ņ-F    ‘+X/+Y/-Z’
R-F    ‘+X/-Y/+Z’
Ŗ-F    ‘+  X/-Y/-Z’
Ļ-F    ‘-X/+Y/+Z’
PS-F    ‘-X/+Y/-Z’
KS-F    ‘-X/-Y/+Z’
PŢ- F    ‘-X/-Y/-Z’
Ķ-F   ‘+X/+Y/0’
K-F    ‘+X/-Y/0’
Q-F    ‘-X/+Y/0’
M-F    ‘-X/-Y/0’
F-F    ‘+X/0/+Z’
Ţ-F    ‘+X/0/-Z’
Ç-F    ‘-X/0/+Z’
x + cedilla-F    ‘-X/0/-Z’
S-F    ‘0/+Y/+Z’
Ş-F    ‘0/+Y/-Z’
C-F    ‘0/-Y/+Z’
Ċ-F    ‘0/-Y/-Z’
Č-F    ‘+X/0/0’
Š-F    ‘-X/0/0’
L-F     ‘0/+Y/0’
N-F     ‘0/-Y/0’
P-F     ‘0/0/+Z’
T-F     ‘0/0/-Z’
SK-F    ‘0/0/0’
SF-F   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [linear unidimensional context, e.g., between two others in a queue]
ŠL-F   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [planar 2-dimensional context, e.g., among others in a crowded room]
ŠP-F   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [volume-based 3-dimensional context, e.g., sky crowded with balloonists]
ŠT-F   ‘INTERTWINED/INTERMINGLED/INTERMIXED POSITION/STATE’ [individual components separable/extractable]
TL-F   ‘INTERTWINED/INTERMINGLED/INTERMIXED POSITION/STATE’ [individual components inseparable/mixed/permanently combined]

 

SL-Ç   ‘ONE-DIMENSIONAL (i.e., LINEAR) SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. point / dot [solid/fixed/rigid]

1. point / dot [flexible/movable/fluid]

2. line / linear [solid/fixed/rigid]

2. line / linear [flexible/movable/fluid] / string-like

3. hoop / ring [solid/fixed/rigid]

3. hoop / ring [flexible/movable/fluid] / loop

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

SP-Ţ   ‘TWO-DIMENSIONAL OUTLINE SHAPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.   generic 2-D outline shape (e.g., the shape of a close-course race-track, the outline of the shore of a lake, a drawing of a national border on a map, etc.)

1. 2-D outline shape generically distorted

2. generic 2-D outline horizontally elongated

2. 2-D outline shape obliquely elongated / skewed along one axis

3. generic 2-D outline vertically elongated

3. 2-D outline shape medially compressed, i.e., “squished/pinched in the middle”

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

The above root’s stem pattern is applied to all of the following roots:
XL-Ţ  : ‘square/rectangle/rhombus’
R-Ļ  :  ‘circle/ellipse’
PS-Ç  : ‘oval’
ŠF-Ţ   :  ‘egg-shaped’
Š-Ç  : ‘half-circle/semi-circle’
K-Ç  :  ‘sliver-moon shaped’
SX-Ţ  :  ‘irregular/amorphous outline’

 

ST-F    ‘FIT/HOLD/CONTAIN AS INTERNAL-EXTERNAL PARTITION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. holding area / containment area; hold/keep/contain

1. room, chamber

2. fit; to fit, contain (= have sufficient room for)

2. reside, situate; room as place of residence, quasi-permanent situation or default location

3. volume or boundary of containment area

3. room boundaries (i.e., walls, floor, ceiling)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the physical boundaries (“walls”) which define the containment area and prevent contents from leaking or escaping

same as above 3 stems referring to the space (“room”) within the holding area and protection of contents from external environment

same as above 3 stems referring to the room as a container separating inside from outside

same as abvoe 3 stems referring to the space within the room as shelter or sanctuary

SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  ceiling, wall, floor, dividing panel, piece of furniture serving to divide room space
EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: house, building, cell, booth, closet; snug, snugness, loose, looseness, baggy, bagginess

 

ST-Ļ    ‘2-DIMENSIONAL CURVATURE/DISTORTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the curvature itself + object manifesting such curvature]

1. volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

2. dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the depression itself + object manifesting the depression]

2. volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

3. undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the distortion itself + object manifesting the distortion]

3.volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the curvature itself]

1. object manifesting a curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

1. volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself]

1. object manifesting a volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

2. dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the depression itself]

2. object manifesting a dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

2. volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself]

2. object manifesting a volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

3. undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the distortion itself]

3. object manifesting an undefined distortion, blurring or anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

3.volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the spatial volume itself]

3. object manifesting a volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

Morphological Derivatives:  crease, pleat, wrinkle(s), curl up, crumple(d), wad(ded), zig-zag, groove/furrow

Ş-Ţ   ‘EXTERIORITY / POSITION OR ORIENTATION OUTSIDE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. position/orientation somewhere outside (of), i.e., beyond or on other side of surface or boundary layer

1. the space beyond/outside/excluded from an interior space/compartment (e.g., of house, car, device, etc.)

2. position/orientation somewhere outside of (2-D context), i.e., beyond/outside the area defined by a boundary line

2. an external surface / functional planar area beyond/outside the boundaries of (e.g., the “out of bounds” area of a tennis court)

3. position/orientation somewhere outside of (3-D context), i.e., beyond/outside the volume set off by a boundary membrane, surface/wall, etc.

3. the space beyond/outside an interior volume / functional space outside the boundaries of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on exterior position (i.e. position other than on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on exterior surface (i.e. position on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on exterior position (i.e. position other than on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on exterior surface (i.e. position on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

compare to root SX-Ç 

 

Š-Ţ    ‘PATH/WAY/COURSE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. course/way [taken]

1. route [taken]

2. [marked] path [taken]

2. road [taken]

3. trajectory; move(ment) along a trajectory / “sail” / arc

3. channel [taken]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the course/way/path/trajectory itself

same as above 3 stems referring to following or travelling along the course/path/trajectory

same as above 3 stems with focus on the route/road/channel itself

same as a stems with focus on following or travelling along the route/road/channel

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: walkway, sidewalk, highway, street, slide, tunnel, conduit

 

T-Ļ   ‘UPRIGHT POSITION OR ORIENTATION/VERTICALITY/PERPENDICULAR/PROTRUSION

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. upright/erect position or orientation (relative to long axis of object) / stand (up)

1. vertical (i.e., parallel to gravity or plane of earth’s surface)

2.  stick up or out/ protrude

2. occupying position of maximum contrast to a position of repose; position of maximum “alertness” or readiness or action

3. perpendicular / position or orientation at right angles  to background firmament (relative to long axis of object); be or stand on end

3. stretch(ed) outward; pull(ed) or configure(d) to maximum height perpendicular to background firmament

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself as an abstract concept

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself as an abstract concept

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

 

X-F   ‘AMBULATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ambulate (as natural to specific species, e.g., walk, slither, fly, crawl, etc.)

1. “formal” ambulation, e.g., march, prance

2. rapid ambulation (as per specific species, e.g., run, gallop, scamper, scurry, etc.)

2. purposeful rapid ambulation, e.g., flee, race

3. unnatural or affected ambulation

3. deliberately unnatural or affected ambulation, e.g., swagger, saunter

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the nature of the bodily movement/gait

same as above 3 stems referring to  the translative/directional motion from one point toward another

same as above 3 stems referring to the nature of the bodily movement/gait

same as above 3 stems referring to  the translative/directional motion from one point toward another

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: skip, shuffle, slink; lead, follow
SSD Derivatives:  1) swim on surface  2) swim/glide underwater 3) slither 4) crawl 5) walk  6) hop 7) jump/leap  8) swing (e.g., through trees, from vines, etc.)  9) fly

 

X-Ļ     ‘TERRAIN-BASED/GEOGRAPHICAL ELEVATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. relative elevation in comparison to other geological feature/terrain

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that context is geo-political or in terms of formal property [geographic ownership]

2. geological layer/stratum

3. flatland area/plain

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. v alley / geographic depression relative to surrounding terrain

1. hill / upland / raised geographic feature relative to surrounding terrain

2. deep underground

2. near-surface / shallow [in terms of depth underground]

3. plateau / raised flat-topped geographic feature relative to surrounding terrain

3. ridge / crest / flat-linear edge between different geographic/geologically-based elevations

 

X-Ţ   ‘INTERIORITY / POSITION OR ORIENTATION INSIDE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. position/orientation somewhere inside (of), i.e., underneath or on other side of surface or boundary layer

1. entirety of an interior space/compartment (e.g., of house, car, device, etc.)

2. position/orientation somewhere inside of (2-D context), i.e., within the area defined by a boundary line

2. entirety of an interior surface / functional planar area within the boundaries of

3. position/orientation somewhere inside of (3-D context), i.e., within the volume set off by a boundary membrane, surface/wall, etc.

3. entirety of an interior volume / functional space within the boundaries of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on interior position (i.e. position other than on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on interior surface (i.e. position on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on interior position (i.e. position other than on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on interior surface (i.e. position on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

compare to roots SŢ -Ç 

 


CLASS 8 ROOTS: taxonomies of organic life

The stem pattern of the following Class 8 Roots is identical to the pattern for the Class 4 Root N-N ‘FOOD PLANT’:
P-Paspiration   cabbage (plant/leaves of sp. Brassica oleracea capitata)
Ķ-Paspiration   lettuce (plant/leaves of genus Lactuca)
Ċ-Paspiration   spinach (plant/leaves of sp. Spinacia oleracea)
F-Paspiration     tea (plant/leaves of sp. Camellia sinensis)
ŠL-Taspiration  kelp (seaweed of orders Laminariales and Fucales)
QŢ-Taspiration    mustard (plant of sp. Brassica hirta / B. nigra / B. juncea)
Ţ-Paspiration   corn, maize (plant/seeds of sp. Zea mays)
KŢ-Taspiration    oat (plant/seed of genus Avena)
Ç-Paspiration   wheat (plant/seed of sp. Triticum aestivum)
PŢ-Taspiration    tobacco (plant/leaves of sp. Nicotiana tabacum)
SP-Taspiration    hemp, marijuana (plant/material of sp. Cannabis sativa)
ŞP-Taspiration    sesame (plant/seed of genus Sesamum)
M-Paspiration   pea (plant/seed of sp. Pisum sativum)
PS-Paspiration   bean (lima/snap/etc.: plant/seed of genus Phaseolus or similar)
ST-Taspiration    lentil (plant/seeds of sp. Lens culinaris)
ŞT-Taspiration    soya, soybean (plant/seed of sp. Glycine max)
PŞ -Paspiration   peanut (plant/seed/pod of sp. Arachis hypogaea)
S-Paspiration   rice (plant/seed of sp. Oryza sativa)
ŠT-Taspiration    pepper (hot/sweet/bell pepper -- plant/pod of genus Capsicum)
Ş-Paspiration   pepper (black -- plant/seed of sp. Piper nigrum)
SK-Taspiration    millet
ŞK-Taspiration    amaranth
ŠK-Taspiration    sorghum
SF-Taspiration    teff
ŞF-Taspiration    ginseng (plant/root of genus Panax)
KŠ-Paspiration   potato (plant/tuber of sp. Solanum tuberosum)
PŠ -Paspiration   carrot (plant/root of sp. Daucus carota sativus)
ŠF-Taspiration    yam, sweet potato
SX-Taspiration    garlic (herb of sp. Allium sativum)
Ŗ-Paspiration   onion (plant/bulb of sp. Allium sepa)
L-Paspiration   grape (plant/fruit of genus Vitis)
SŢ-Taspiration    tomato (plant/berry of genus Lycopersicon)
ŞŢ-Taspiration    squash, melon (plant/fruit of genus Cucurbita grown for edible fruit)
ŠŢ-Taspiration    gourd (plant/hard-rinded fruit of genera Lagenaria & Cucurbita)
ŞX-Taspiration    date (tree/fruit of sp. Phoenix dactylifera)
ŠX-Taspiration    cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
Š-Qaspiration     bamboo (plant/stem of genera Bambusa / Arundinaria / Dendrocalamus)
N-Qaspiration      cork (tree/elastic tissue of sp. Quercus suber)
L-Qaspiration      cotton (plant/fibers of genus Gossypium)
H-Qaspiration      ginger (plant/rhizome of genus Zingiber)
Ņ-Qaspiration      mint (plant of family Labiatae)
Ŗ-Qaspiration      safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)

 

P-Taspiration        ‘BRANCHED AND/OR LEAVED PLANT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. genus of branched tree/bush and/or leaved plant

1. wood product

2. leaf

2. leaf product

3. bark

3. bark product

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wood

1. seed/fruit/nut

1. wood as resource

1. seed/fruit as food or resource

2. root

2. flower/blossom

2. root as food or resource

2. flower as food or resource

3. branch

3. sap

3. branch as resource

3. sap product/syrup

SSD Suffix = -V1t’ used as follows: 1) meat of fruit, 2) seed within fruit, 3) rind, 4) juice, 5) flavor, 6) odor of fruit, 7) oil, 8) [unassigned/specific to individual root] 9) fermented juice, i.e., wine
THE ABOVE PATTERN IS APPLIED TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
C-Taspiration       ‘BIRCH’
T-Taspiration       ‘SPRUCE’
Ķ -Taspiration       ‘CEDAR’
X-Taspiration       ‘OAK’
K-Taspiration       ‘PINE’
Ċ-Taspiration       ‘PALM’
F-Taspiration       ‘CHERRY’
Č-Taspiration       ‘WALNUT’
Ţ-Taspiration       ‘MAPLE’
Ç-Taspiration       ‘ASH’
aspiration       ‘CYPRESS’
S-Taspiration       ‘BEECH’
Ş-Taspiration       ‘MAHOGANY’
M-Taspiration       ‘COCONUT’
N-Taspiration       ‘EUCALYPTUS’
Ņ-Taspiration       ‘MAGNOLIA’
Š-Taspiration       ‘REDWOOD’
H-Taspiration       ‘LARCH’
L-Taspiration       ‘ELM’
Ļ-Taspiration       ‘FIG’
R-Taspiration       ‘BANANA’
Ŗ-Taspiration       ‘YEW’
PS-Taspiration       ‘ALMOND’
PŞ-Taspiration       ‘CHESTNUT’
PŠ-Taspiration       ‘ALDER’
KS-Taspiration       ‘OLIVE’
KŞ-Taspiration       ‘POPLAR’
TL-Taspiration       ‘PINEAPPLE’
KŠ-Taspiration       ‘APPLE’
PL-Taspiration       ‘ORANGE’
KL-Taspiration       ‘LEMON’
FL-Taspiration       ‘LIME’
ŢL-Taspiration       ‘PEAR’
XL-Taspiration       ‘PLUM’
SL-Taspiration       ‘PEACH’
ŞL-Taspiration       ‘TANGERINE’
Q-Taspiration       ‘COFFEE’
ŠP-Taspiration      FLAX

 

  Q-Paspiration   ‘INSECT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of genus

1. membe r of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

MAT Suffix –V0k used to indicate life stage: larvae/grub, chrysalis, cocoon, adult, etc.
SSD Suffix = -V1t’ used as follows: 1) egg, 2) wing, 3) oil/secretion, 4) silk/web, 5) skin/pellicle, 6) tail, 7) horn, 8) leg(s) 9) [open]
THE ABOVE PATTERN IS APPLIED TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
ŠT-Paspiration      ‘BUMBLEBEE’
ST-Paspiration      ‘HONEYBEE’
SL-Paspiration      ‘ANT’
ŞL-Paspiration      ‘COCKROACH’
SX-Paspiration     ‘BUTTERFLY’
ŠX-Paspiration     ‘MOTH’
ŞT-Paspiration      ‘HOUSEFLY’
SK-Paspiration     ‘WASP’
ŞK-Paspiration     ‘HORNET’
SŢ-Paspiration     ‘GNAT’
ŠK-Paspiration     ‘MOSQUITO’
ŞŢ-Paspiration      ‘APHID’
SF-Paspiration      ‘FIREFLY’
ŠŢ-Paspiration      ‘FLEA’
ŠL-Paspiration      ‘BEETLE’
QŢ-Paspiration     ‘SPIDER’
ŠF-Paspiration      ‘TICK’
Ş-Paspiration       ‘TERMITE’
ŞF-Paspiration      ‘WATERBUG’
SP-Paspiration      ‘GRASSHOPPER’
ŠP-Paspiration      ‘LOCUST’
ŞX-Paspiration      ‘DRAGONFLY’
KŞ-Paspiration     ‘MANTIS’
PŢ-Paspiration    BLẠ-  ‘GENERIC CRAWLING BUG’
KŢ-Paspiration    GLẠ-  ‘GENERIC FLYING BUG’

 

SK-Kaspiration     ‘GENERIC MAMMAL/AVIAN/REPTILE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

MAT Suffix –V0k used to indicate life stage: e.g., foal, fawn, yearling, adult, etc.
SSD Suffix = -V1t’ used as follows: 1) egg, 2) milk, 3) oil/secretion/venom, 4) fat, 5) skin/hide, 6) tail, 7) tusk/horn, 8) fur/feathers 9) flesh/meat
THE ABOVE PATTERN IS APPLIED TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
P-Kaspiration      ‘HORSE’
T-Kaspiration      ‘COW’
Ķ-Kaspiration       ‘PIG’
C-Kaspiration       ‘SHEEP’
F-Kaspiration       ‘GOAT’
Ċ-Kaspiration        ‘DEER’
K-Kaspiration       ‘BISON/BUFFALO’
M-Kaspiration       ‘CHICKEN’
Š-Kaspiration        ‘DUCK’
PL-Kaspiration         ‘GOOSE’
Ş-Kaspiration         ‘SWAN’
Q-Kaspiration        ‘TURKEY’
Ţ-Kaspiration         ‘OSTRICH’
Ç-Kaspiration         ‘DOLPHIN’
Č-Kaspiration         ‘MULE’
X-Kaspiration         ‘DONKEY’
aspiration         ‘ZEBRA’
XL-Kaspiration         ‘LION’
L-Kaspiration       ‘TIGER’
R-Kaspiration        ‘BEAR’
S-Kaspiration       ‘ELK’
Ņ-Kaspiration      ‘MOOSE’
Ļ-Kaspiration         ‘BOAR’
PS-Kaspiration         ‘YAK’
KS-Kaspiration         ‘CAMEL’
PŞ -Kaspiration         ‘WALRUS’
Ŗ-Kaspiration        ‘ELEPHANT’
PŠ-Kaspiration         ‘GIRAFFE’
N-Kaspiration         ‘CAT’
H-Kaspiration         ‘DOG’
KŠ-Kaspiration        ‘RABBIT’
TL-Kaspiration        ‘CHIMPANZEE’
KŞ-Kaspiration        ‘GORILLA’
ŢL-Kaspiration        ‘LEMUR’
KL-Kaspiration        ‘ORANGUTAN’
FL-Kaspiration        ‘OTTER’
SL-Kaspiration       ‘WHALE’
ŠL-Kaspiration        ‘SEAL’
ŞX-Kaspiration        ‘SEA LION’
PŢ-Kaspiration        ‘ANTELOPE’
ŞL-Kaspiration       ‘GAZELLE’
KŢ-Kaspiration       ‘BABOON’
QŢ-Kaspiration        ‘FOX’
SP-Kaspiration       ‘WOLF’
ST-Kaspiration        ‘COYOTE’
ŠP-Kaspiration       ‘SKUNK’
SF-Kaspiration         ‘PORCUPINE’
ŞP-Kaspiration       ‘POSSUM’
ŞT-Kaspiration         ‘KANGAROO’
SŢ-Kaspiration       ‘MOUSE’
SX-Kaspiration       ‘RAT’
SF-Kaspiration      ‘LEOPARD’
ŠK-Kaspiration      ‘CHEETAH’
ŠX-Kaspiration        ‘PANTHER’
ŠF-Kaspiration         ‘JAGUAR’
ŞF-Kaspiration        ‘MOLE’
ŞK-Kaspiration        ‘SQUIRREL’
ŞŢ-Kaspiration        ‘VOLE’
ŠT-Kaspiration         ‘CHIPMUNK’
ŠŢ-Kaspiration        ‘SHREW’
P-Qaspiration        ‘ROBIN’
T-Qaspiration        ‘LARK’
F-Qaspiration        ‘SPARROW’
Ţ-Qaspiration        ‘OWL’
Ç-Qaspiration         ‘PIGEON’
Č-Qaspiration        ‘EAGLE’
Ċ-Qaspiration         ‘GULL’
Ķ-Qaspiration       ‘ALBATROSS’
C-Qaspiration        ‘HAWK’
Q-Qaspiration       ‘VULTURE’
K-Qaspiration        ‘PHEASANT’
S-Qaspiration        ‘NIGHTINGALE’
R-Qaspiration         ‘SNAKE’
TL-Qaspiration        ‘VIPER’
KS-Qaspiration       ‘COBRA’
PS-Qaspiration         ‘RATTLESNAKE’
SX-Qaspiration       ‘PYTHON’
SF-Qaspiration        ‘ASP’
SK-Qaspiration       ‘ALLIGATOR’
ST-Qaspiration         ‘CROCODILE’
PL-Qaspiration        ‘LIZARD’
KŞ-Qaspiration       ‘GILA MONSTER’
PŞ-Qaspiration        ‘IGUANA’
KŠ-Qaspiration        ‘FROG’
PŠ-Qaspiration        ‘TOAD’
KL-Qaspiration       ‘TURTLE’

 

T-Paspiration    ‘GENERIC WATERLIFE ’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

SSD Suffix = -V1t’ used as follows: 1) egg, 2) meat, 3) skin/shell, 4) fluid/ink, 5) smoked meat, 6) as bait, 7) as fodder, 8) as ingredient in food or as fishmeal 9) cooked meat
THE ABOVE PATTERN IS APPLIED TO THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:
N-Paspiration      ‘OCTOPUS’
X-Paspiration      ‘SQUID’
R-Paspiration      ‘EEL’
Ş-Paspiration      ‘LAMPREY’
Ņ-Paspiration      ‘RAY’
K-Paspiration      ‘SHARK’
XL-Paspiration     ‘CLAM’
FL-Paspiration     ‘SCALLOP’
PL-Paspiration      ‘MUSSEL’
ŢL-Paspiration      ‘CRAB’
TL-Paspiration      ‘SHRIMP/PRAWN’
KL-Paspiration     ‘LOBSTER’
aspiration       ‘TROUT’
H-Paspiration       ‘TUNA’
Ļ-Paspiration       ‘COD’
Ç-Paspiration       ‘BASS’
C-Paspiration     ‘PIKE’

CLASS 9 ROOTS: taxonomies of physical substances

The stem pattern of the following Class 9 roots is identical to that of the Class 6 root T-Ġ ‘(QUASI-)SOLID SUBSTANCE (i.e., non-liquid & non-gaseous)’:
P-P’ ‘brass’
P-T’  ‘chalk’
P-K’  ‘cloth/fabric’
P-Q’ ‘coal’
T-P’ ‘spice/herb/seasoning’
T-T’ ‘glass’
T-K’ ‘jade’
T-Q’ ‘metal/ore’
Ķ-P’ ‘mineral’
Ķ-T’ ‘oil (petroleum)’
Ķ-K’ ‘plastic’
Ķ-Q’ ‘quartz’
K-P’ ‘rubber’
K-T’ ‘salt’
K-K’ ‘steel’
K-Q’ ‘silk’
C-P’ ‘tar’
C-T’ - ‘wax’
C-K’ Aluminium
C-Q’ Antimony
Ċ-P’ Arsenic        
Ċ-T’ Beryllium     
Ċ-K’ Bismuth      
Ċ-Q’ Boron                      
Č-P’ Cadmium     
Č-T’  Calcium      
Č-K’ Carbon        
Č-Q’ Chromium   
Ç-P’ Cobalt          
Ç-T’ Copper
Ç-K’ Gallium       
Ç-Q’ Gold
F-P’ Iridium         
F-T’ Iron
F-K’ Lead
F-Q’ Lithium        
Ţ-P’ Magnesium  
Ţ-T’ Manganese   
Ţ-K’ Molybdenum           
Ţ-Q’ Nickel
X-P’ Palladium    
X-T’ Phosphorus  
X-K’ Platinum     
X-Q’ Plutonium   
S-P’ Potassium
S-T’ Radium        
S-K’ Rubidium    
S-Q’ Selenium      
Ş-P’ Silicon          
Ş-T’ Silver            
Ş-K’ Sulfur
Ş-Q’ Tin
Š-P’ Titanium
Š-T’ Uranium       
Š-K’Vanadium
Š-Q’ Tungsten
M-P’ Zinc
M-T’Zirconium
KL-P’ Germanium
KL-T’ Krypton     
KL-K’ Osmium
M-K’   asbestos     magnesium silicate
M-Q’ aspirin          acetylsalicylic acid
N-P’ baking soda               
N-T’ bicarbonate of soda               
N-K’ graphite (carbon)
N-Q’ diamond       
Ņ-P’ marble            
Ņ-T’ emery powder           
Ņ-K’  epsom salts              
Ņ-Q’ fluorspar     
L-P’  gypsum       
L-T’ linoleum       
L-K’ lime             
L-Q’ magnesia     
H-P’ milk of magnesium 
H-T’ plaster of Paris           
H-K’  potash        
H-Q’ saltpeter      
R-P’ silica             
R-T’ sugar, table 
R-K’ talc or talcum          
R-Q’  washing soda         
Ŗ-P’  zinc white   
PS-P’  NATURALLY OCCURRING ACTINIDE OR UNSTABLE/RADIOACTIVE HEAVY ELEMENT
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Actinium 2) Thorium 3) Protactinium 4) Neptunium 5) any radioactive isotope of an element 6) Astatine 7) Francium 8) Polonium 9) Technetium
PŠ-P’  SYNTHETIC ACTINIDE ELEMENT
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Americium 2) Curium 3) Berkelium 4) Californium 5) Einsteinium 6) Fermium 7) Mendelevium 8) Nobelium 9) Lawrencium
PŞ-P’  NATURALLY OCCURRING ELEMENT FOUND ONLY IN COMPOUNDS OR MIXED ORES
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Barium 2) Caesium (Cesium)  3) Hafnium 4) Niobium 5) Rhenium 6) Rhodium 
7) Ruthenium 8) Strontium 9) Tellurium
x-cedilla-P’ RARE NATURAL ELEMENT FOUND ONLY IN COMPOUNDS OR MIXED ORES
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Indium 2) Scandium 3) Yttrium 4) Tantalum 5) source compound for such elements 6) 7) 8) 9) primary source ore in which element is found
KS-T’  SYNTHETIC HEAVY ELEMENT
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Rutherfordium 2) Dubnium 3) Seaborgium 4) Bohrium 5) Hassium 6) Meitnerium   7) Darmstadtium 8) Roentgenium 9) trans-Roentgenium synthetic element (i.e., Ununbium, Ununtrium, etc.)
KŞ-T’   LANTHANIDE ELEMENT
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Lanthanum 2) Cerium 3) Praseodymium 4) Neodymium 5) Promethium 6) Samarium 7) Europium 8) Gadolinium 9) Terbium
KŠ-T’  HEAVIER LANTHANIDE ELEMENT
SSD Derivatives specify exact element: 1) Dysprosium 2) Holmium 3) Erbium 4) Thulium 5) Ytterbium 6) Lutetium 7)
8) 9) lanthanide-based compound

 

The stem pattern for the following Class 9 roots are identical to the pattern for the Class 6 root N-Ġ ‘LIQUID/FLUID’:
SK-P’ ‘paint’
Ŗ -T’ ‘oil (fatty liquid derived from plants/animals)’
Ŗ -K’‘honey’
Ŗ -Q’‘vinegar’
Ļ-P’ acetone           
Ļ-T’ alcohol, grain             
Ļ-K’ alcohol, wood
Ļ-Q’  ammonia
PL-P’ iodine         
PL-T’  mercury
PL-K’ brine           aqueous sodium chloride solution
PL-Q’ benzene
TL-P’  lye or soda lye       sodium hydroxide
TL-T’ formalin      aqueous formaldehyde solution
TL-K’ rubbing alcohol      isopropyl alcohol
TL-Q’ methanol    methyl alcohol

 

The stem pattern of the following Class 9 roots is identical to the pattern of the Class 6 root H-Ġ ‘GAS / FLUME’:
SL-P’ ‘carbon dioxide’
SL-T’  ‘carbon monoxide’
SL-K’ Chlorine    
SL-Q’ Argon        
PŢ-P’ Helium       
PŢ-T’ Hydrogen  
PŢ-K’ Fluorine     
PŢ-Q’ Nitrogen    
SP-P’ Oxygen      
SP-T’  Neon         
SP-K’ Radon       
SP-Q’ Xenon
ST-P’ ozone
ST-T’ laughing gas             
ST-K’ air

ST-P’   ‘STICKY/ADHESIVE MATERIAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sticky substance or material; to stick/be mired in

1. adhesive substance material; adhere/stick (via adhesive)

2. goo / ooze / slime

2. glue / liquid adhesive

3. sap / resin

3. cement / mortar / grout

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

 

CLASS 10 ROOTS: relational concepts, identity, associations

L-C’   ‘SIMILARITY/SAMENESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. similar(ity) to oneself (on another occasion)

1. same (= selfsame)

2. similar(ity) to (an)other entity/instance

2. same (= identical to (an)other entity/instance)

3. remind (one) of / reminder

3. same (= copy/replacement)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on appearance or superficial impression

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on function, purpose or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on identity or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on function, purpose or behavior

 

M-C’   ‘VALUE/WORTH/PRICE/COST’
(Often used in conjunction with various Quantifying and Modulative affixes from Sections 7.7.6 and 7.7.7 to show relative degree of value within context)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of usefulness, convenience, efficacy, service, applicability]

1. cost appraisal, assessment, estimate, quote

2. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of personal desire or emotional attachment]

2. cost, expense, expenditure [what is (to be) given up or released in exchange for something, either a commercial or non-commercial context]

3. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of financial benefit or gain, profit, or remuneratively]

3. rate (of payment); formula/terms for determining payment

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on intrinsic value

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on actual value (i.e., degree to which the intrinsic value can actually be utilized, consumed or manifested)

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to cost quoted or agreed to

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to actual payment

SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 2: 1) fee/toll or service charge 2) tithe 3) duty/tariff/levy 4) ransom 5) tax 6) dues 7) wage(s) 8) fare  9) price/charge [in money or legal tender]

 

T-C’ ‘POSSESSION / OWNERSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. have/possess; possession (temporary/circumstantial and alienable – e.g., a library book in one’s hand)

1. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (alienable but quasi-permanent by law/right and in one’s immediate possession-, e.g., a hat I bought and am wearing)

2. have/possess; possession (circumstantial and affective + (quasi-) inalienable, either permanent or temporary – e.g., a medical condition, an office at work I occupy, a seat at a cinema showing)

2. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (alienable but quasi-permanent by law/right, not necessarily in one’s immediate possession -, e.g., a hat I bought/own but am not necessarily wearing)

3. have/possess; possession (genetic, intrinsic and inalienable, but not considered property – e.g., a sibling, a child, a limb, a memory)

3. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (quasi-permanent and legally inalienable except through formal/legal separation process – e.g., a house I own, a pet dog I registered

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act/state of possession

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing possessed

Same as above 3 stems referring to act/state of possession/ownership

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing owned; piece of property

 

CLASS 11 ROOTS: concepts relating to order, arrangement, configuration

F-Časpiration   ‘ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS (ORNAMENTAL/SPECIALIZED)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tower

1. window opening

2. dome

2. doorway

3. spire/steeple

3. balcony/terrace

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

 

M-Časpiration   ‘CONTAIN / HOLD / CONTENTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. contain(ment) via gravity (e.g., basin) + contents

Same as INFORMAL stems but in quasi-permanent context or by intrinsic nature as opposed to the INFORMAL stems which convey an incidental or circumstantial context

2. contain(ment) via enclosure / surrounding conveyance + contents

3. contain(ment) via imbuement / as ingredient; to “carry” [as integrated component or ingredient] + contents

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to contents

same as above 3 stems referring to the container

The -V1t’ affix provides the following distinctions: 1) bottle 2) jar/pot 3) barrel/cask 4) bin 5) vat / tub / basin [distinguished via SIZ affix] 6) can/tin 7) piece of furniture 8) purse/bag/satchel/pack 9) case/trunk

 

P-Časpiration - ‘TEXTURE/TACTILE SENSATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. texture, tactile sensation (tactile sensation + physical-emotional reaction)

1. act/process to render (an object/entity having) a particular texture (tactile sensation + physical-emotional reaction)

2. material impact/benefit/effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that consistency

2. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that consistency

3. material impact/benefit/effect of having a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of having a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. object having a particular texture

1. the texture itself

1. act/process designed to render a certain texture

1. actual results of an act or process to render a certain texture

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that texture

2. actual material impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that texture

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the entity having that texture

2. actual psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the entity having that texture

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact/benefit of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. actual material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. actual psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

SSD suffix specifies reaction:  sensuous, delightful/fun, soothing, as-expected, surprising/positive, surprising/negative, annoying/irritating, painful

ROOTS BELOW ARE MODELED LIKE THE ABOVE; OFTEN USED WITH DEGREE/EXTENT AFFIX

P-Caspiration gummy
T-Ċaspiration chewy
PL-Časpiration slimy
T-Caspiration sticky
Ķ-Ċaspiration prickly
TL-Časpiration burning, heat conductive
Ķ-Caspiration tingly
K-Ċaspiration soft like fur
KL-Časpiration soft like a cushion
Q-Caspiration liquidy
Q-Ċaspiration lumpy
FL-Časpiration cartilaginous
F-Caspiration viscous
M-Ċaspiration rough (like sandpaper)
ŢL-Časpiration coarse (like handling gravel)
Ţ-Caspiration powdery
N-Ċaspiration gritty (like fine sand)
XL-Časpiration grainy/granular
Ç-Caspiration mushy
L-Ċaspiration slushy
PS-Časpiration gooey
X-Caspiration slippery
Ņ-Ċaspiration ice-cold, numbing cold
KS-Časpiration numbing (= loss of sensation)
aspiration “pins & needles” sensation
H-Ċaspiration needle-like sharpness (e.g., a cactus)
PŠ-Časpiration bristly
S-Caspiration feathery
PS-Ċaspiration wispy/wafting
KŠ-Časpiration “cobwebby”/like cotton-candy
M-Caspiration curvaceous/sensual (= soft/smooth/squeezable/rounded)
PŞ-Ċaspiration rubbery
L-Časpiration hard + semi-smooth (like wood)
N-Caspiration hard + natural mix of smooth/rough (like a rock)
PL-Ċaspiration complexly textured + hard/honeycombed (like handling a pine cone)
R-Časpiration metallic
L-Caspiration plastic-like
Ŗ-Časpiration papery
TL-Ċaspiration sponge-like
Ņ-Caspiration downy
KL-Ċaspiration woolly
Ļ-Časpiration fluffy/puffy/airy
H-Caspiration hairy
FL-Ċaspiration dusty
XL-Časpiration soggy/waterlogged

 

P-Ċaspiration   ‘CONSISTENCY/MALLEABILITY/FLEXIBILITY/PLASTICITY/RHEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. consistency, degree of malleability/flexibility/ plasticity

1. act/process to render (an object having) a certain consistency or degree of malleability / flexibility / plasticity

2. material impact/benefit/effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

3. material impact/benefit/effect of having a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of having a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. object having a particular consistency

1. the consistency itself

1. act/process designed to render a certain consistency or degree of malleability/plasticity

1. actual results of an act or process to render a certain consistency or degree of malleability/plasticity

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. actual material impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the entity having that consistency

2. actual psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. actual material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. actual psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

THE STEMS OF THE ROOTS BELOW ARE MODELED ON THE SAME STRUCTURE AS THE ABOVE ROOT; THESE ROOTS USE THE EXTENT/DEGREE SUFFIX TO SPECIFY THE POINT ON A SPECTRUM BETWEEN TWO EXTREMES AS INDICATED
Ċ-Ċaspiration suppleness/pliancy/flexibility/ductility/bendability <--> stiffness/rigidity
T-Časpiration squeezability/compressability <--> stiffness/rigidity
R-Caspiration sponginess <--> stiffness/rigidity
X-Ċaspiration elasticity <--> stiffness/rigidity
K-Časpiration springiness/spring <--> inertness/immobility
XL-Caspiration jiggliness <--> inertness/immobility
Ç-Ċaspiration limpness/flaccidity <--> stiffness/rigidity
Ķ-Časpiration buoyancy
FL-Caspiration bounce/recoil <--> inertness/immobility
Ţ-Ċaspiration brittleness <--> resiliency
Š-Časpiration flimsiness/fragility <--> resiliency/strength
KL-Caspiration flabbiness <--> cohesiveness / compactness
F-Ċaspiration tendency to disintegrate/crumble/fall apart <--> coherence/cohesiveness/compositional integrity
S-Časpiration spreadability
PL-Caspiration deformability / “dentability”

 

Q-Časpiration   ‘GEOGRAPHICAL/GEOPOLITICAL ELEMENTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. geographical feature or element

1. geopolitical feature or element

2. geographical area / “land”

2. geopolitical area / “land” or “country”

3. natural piece of territory

3. (piece of) property

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on geophysical feature or element

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus as natural habitat

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus as political entity

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on political boundaries/borders

 

TL-Caspiration   ‘ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. column/pillar

1. strut/buttress

2. “side”/wall (external)

2. partition

3. floor [= base/ground]

3. roof

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

 

X- Časpiration   ‘MAKE/CONSTRUCT/INTEGRATE/FORM’
(NOTE:  This root does not refer to ‘make/create’ meaning ‘emit/secrete/produce’as in ‘make noise’ or ‘make milk’, etc.)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. make/construct/create (non-mechanical) [= construct via integration of material resources]

1. mechanically construct / build from a design

2. to form/fashion/mix  (non-mechanical) [= combine ingredients/parts to form]

2. integrate parts / integration of parts

3. integrate/organize (non-mechanical)

3. machine / mechanical device

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effort/work involved

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the result or product

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effort/work involved

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the result or product

NOTE:  The above meanings represent these stems as used in conjunction with the COMPLETIVE (CPT) version.  Their default PROCESSUAL (PCT) counterparts would translate as ‘plan (to)’, ‘design’, etc.
Derivations:  cobble together, rig, system, conspire

 


CLASS 12 ROOTS: socially or externally-induced affectations

L-q + hacek   ‘MUSIC’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. musical note or tone / produce [i.e., play] musical note or tone [sound + its playing]

Same as INFORMAL stems except that they apply to the production of song, i.e., vocal music or for voice with musical accompaniment

2. consciously select musical note [for purpose of composition] + sound of note

3. a musical beat or measure [sound + its playing]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. sound of musical note or tone

1. producing/playing of musical note or tone

2. sound of selected musical note

2. conscious selection of musical note [for purpose of composition]

3. sound of a musical beat or measure

3. production/playing of a musical beat or measure

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: piece of music, melody, music [abstract concept], composition, musical instrument, musician, composer, rhythm, band, orchestra, song

 

N-x + cedilla’  ‘GOODWILL/FRIENDLINESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. being nice [= emotional/spiritual/physical support of another’s interests]

1. good samaritanship, going out of the way to help

2. goodwill, benevolent intent, kind(ness)

2. peace / fellowship

3. amicability / friendliness

3. friendship (unidirectional)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act(ions) or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on emotion or feeling

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act(ions) or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on emotion or feeling

Derivations:  altruism, being friends, affable

 

P-X’    ‘CELEBRATORY ACT/ CEREMONIAL RITE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act of jubilation (as manifestation of personal joy, contentment, freedom, self-indulgence, etc.) [both act + cause/reason]

1. solemn act of commemoration/memorial

2. act of celebration (in positive recognition of something) [both act + cause/reason]

2. solemn act of recognition/acknowledgement

3. joyful or celebratory symbolic/ceremonial rite [both act + cause/reason]

3. solemn symbolic/ceremonial rite

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to reason, cause or motive

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to reason, cause or motive

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  party, celebration, fęte, festivities, ceremony

 

q-q + hacek   ‘SALUTATION/GREETING/ACKNOWLEDGEMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. acknowledge/demonstrate awareness of

1. greet(ings) / salutation(s)

2. hail / get attention of / bring attention to

2. formal welcome or farewell

3. congratulate

3. socially introduce / to socially present

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

SSD affix for FORMAL Stem Nos. 1 and 2 by degree:  1) bow upon arrival/introduction 2) shake hands upon arrival/introduction  3) wave hand or arm upon arrival/introduction/seeing 4)verbal salutation only upon arrival/introduction/seeing 5) words used in greeting/salutation/farewell  6) say goodbye  7) wave goodbye 8) shake hands upon farewell/leavetaking 9) bow upon farewell/leavetaking

 

T-X’    ‘REPUTE/NOTORIETY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. repute/reputation

1. distinction/mark

2. public image/persona

2. degree of eminence [= power or influence]

3. notoriety [= degree of renown/recognition by others]

3. degree of prestige/status

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of person reputed

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of audience

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of person reputed

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of audience

This root is usually used in conjunction with the NOTORIETY affix.

 

CLASS 13 ROOTS: personal affect, emotion, feelings, preferences

 

Č-Ř   ‘DEGREE OF FUN/MERRIMENT/JOVIALITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fun/ merriment; feel/be merry, have fun (both cause/source + feeling derived)

1. be jovial/jocular/jolly; express/manifest joviality, jollity

2. frolic, skylark = aimless, innocent pursuit of fun and amusement (both cause/source + feeling derived)

2. formal amusement (activity or cause + feeling derived), e.g., from/at party, fete, show, performance, etc.

3. whim, impulsive moment for purpose of amusement

3. revel; an instance of revelry

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling of merriment derived

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeeling of merriment/amusement derived

carouse, with wild abandon, spree, escapade, jaunt, romp, party, fete

 

F-Ř   ‘HUMOR/WIT/JEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something funny or humorous = comical

1. a jest or prank; make a jest or pull a prank = act or situation designed to evoke humor

2. something witty = subtlely and cleverly humorous

2. a joke; make a joke  = communicated situation or message designed to evoke humor

3. something farcical = something humorous based in irony

3. something sardonic = double-edged humor based in sarcasm

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the joke or source of humor

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the humorous effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the joke or source of humor

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the humorous effect/impact

SSD derivatives:  pun, riddle

 

h-d + cedilla   ‘LOVE/AFFECTION/EMOTIONAL BOND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act of affection / display of fondness or endearment

1. like / value as source of emotional fulfillment

2. familial/genetically-tied bond of love

2. love of country, heritage, race, etc.

3. romantic love

3. love of or emotional allegiance to abstract idea (e.g., freedom, life, wealth)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the emotion/feeling itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the emotion/feeling itself

Morphological Derivations:  love, tenderness, infatuation, obsession, passion, passionate
SSD Derivatives from INFORMAL Stem 1:  kiss, embrace, hug, hold hand, cuddle, caress, massage, pat, wink

 

L-Ř   ‘ “HEART” / “ESSENCE” / VALUES ’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. metaphorical/psychological seat of one’s personality and emotions, i.e., “heart”, “soul”, mind

1. personal value(s)/ what one holds dearest or as most important

2. degree/depth of one’s emotions / “feelings” / experience a certain depth of emotion

2. personal virtues/ personality traits

3. essence; essential subjective/intangible qualities of an entity

3. personal principles

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to volitionally controllable aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to non-volitional aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to volitionally controllable aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to non-volitional aspect(s) thereof

Derivations:  personality

 

P- Ğ   ‘EXPERIENCE / UNDERGO A STATE OR FEELING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of a state/feeling/emotion; feel (an) emotion [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expressions of the particular emotion.

2. act or action caused by non-volitional experience of state or feeling

3. cause or causal circumstance for non-volitional state/feeling

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling itself

The stem patterns of the above root are applied to all of the following roots:
P-d + cedilla    ‘excitement/thrill’
Č-Ğ    ‘agitation/disquietude’
ST-V    ‘awe / be or feel impressed / humbleness in face of something’
N-Ř    ‘depression / be or feel depressed’
T-d + cedilla   ‘eagerness / fervor / zeal’
Š-Ř    ‘cordiality/benevolence’
X-Ğ    ‘hysteria/loss of control’
SX-V    ‘commitment/loyalty’  Derivations:  ‘intransigence’, ‘stubbornness’
PŠ-Ř    ‘tenderness/nuturing/caring’
Ķ-d + cedilla   ‘feel hurt/offended’
Ķ-Ř   ‘spite’
K-d + cedilla  ‘stoicism/repression’
Ş-Ğ  ‘nonchalance/indifference’ Derivations:  ‘callousness’
Ţ-Ř  ‘torpor/lethargy’ Derivations: ‘stupor’, ‘catatonia’
R-Ğ   ‘numbness / emotional saturation’
Q-V    ‘wonder/enthrallment’
C-V   ‘inspiration / feeling of positive energy’
M-V  ‘fear/fright’ Derivation:  panic
H-V    ‘uplift/inspiration (e.g., by beauty, art, music, etc.)
FL-Ğ    ‘jollity/merriment/gayness’
M-d + cedilla  ‘feeling carefree / frivolity / relaxed’
ŠX-Ř    ‘stress / feel pressured’
KŢ-Ř    ‘worry / feel preoccupied’
ŠK-d + cedilla    ‘grief / sadness from loss’
KS-d + cedilla  ‘angst / weltschmertz’
P-V    ‘regret, repining, ruefulness’
T-Ř   ‘woe, despair, desolation’
SL-V    ‘sorrow, lamentation’
Q-Ř   ‘wistfulness, bittersweetness’
X-d + cedilla    ‘bittersweet longing’ (Portuguese “saudade”)
T-V    ‘anticipate (something positive); feeling of anticipation (for something positive)’
QŢ-V  ‘feeling of surprise, revelation and self-growth upon discovering that achievement of long-awaited vengeance or vindication is hollow and meaningless due to personal maturation or present irrelevance of original circumstances’
XL-V    ‘mix of humor and shame felt upon pulling joke on someone or at their expense but the target doesn’t “get it” or remains ignorant of the joke’

K-V  serenity, peace of mind
T-Ğ schadenfreude; malicious glee at another’s (implicitly deserved) discomfort or inconvenience
KL-d + cedilla impatience due to feeling that time/resources being wasted
Ņ-Ř bother, annoyance (based on displeasure at or disagreement with external circumstances)
Ķ-V bother, annoyance at self due to one’s own actions/behavior
K-Ğ feeling of disappointment at being letdown by another
TL-d + cedilla feeling of disappointment/let-down at one’s own actions/behavior
Ċ -Ř  anticipate a negative; dread
Ċ-V  feeling of emotional maturity/superiority; feeling “above it all”
Ķ -Ğ  feeling of surprise, revelation and self-growth upon discovering that one can get past, and need not succumb to, feelings of defensiveness or “victimhood” upon being criticized, maligned, slandered, or disrespected
Č-V  achievement of zen-like enlightenment through meditation
Q-Ğ  meditative bliss
Ņ-d + cedilla post-orgasmic/post-coital bliss; “afterglow”
C-Ř feeling of being “on edge”; at cusp of loss-of-control or loss of one’s actions/inhibitions
F-V being ultra-alert with senses heightened
M-Ğ ecstatic/euphoric feeling of joie-de-vivre
L-d + cedilla feeling of inherent “connection” to or oneness with the universe through space and time
Ç-Ř feeling of puzzlement and curiosity, a desire to solve a mystery
Ţ-V  feeling of piquancy, stimulated curiosity, a desire for a new experience
N-Ğ feeling of “devilishness” and spontaneous non-conformity
Ş-d + cedilla feeling flustered at not knowing how to react or what to think
M-Ř embarrassment due to social faux pas, behavioral misstep, or others seeing through one’s façade or airs
Ç-V embarrassment at being unable to perform a task or activity as expected
L-Ğ humiliation
N-d + cedilla poignancy, “aaaaw” reaction to irresistable cuteness
R-Ř material lust, avarice, greed (for sexual lust see root H-Z   ŠŬ-)
S-V  shock, reeling (e.g., from bad news or an unexpected discovery)
Ņ-Ğ swooning, feeling of faintness due to emotional overload
S-d + cedilla repugnance, repellant feeling, disgust
H-Ř  discomfiture at having been socially snubbed or at being ill-prepared for a situation after believing that one was accepted or was well-prepared
Š-d + cedilla solace, comfort in the face of sadness/grief

 

P-Ř   ‘AFFECTIVE/NON-VOLITIONAL MENTAL STATE/PROCESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mood; be in a mood

1. rationalization; rationalize

2. instinct; act/behave on instinct [state + content]

2. delusion; (be) delude(d)

3. psychic phenomenon, altered state of consciousness

3. dream [state + content]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

SSD Derivatives for Stem 3:  1) “high”, under-the-influence of a psycho-active substance  2) hallucination; hallucinate, (observe) apparition 3) trance 4) instance of telepathy 5) (experience) premonition/vision 6) synaesthetic experience 7) sensory illusion 8) out-of-body experience  9) state of prescience/clairvoyance

 

Q-d + cedilla   ‘DEGREE OF PLEASURE/FULFILLMENT/SATISFACTION/HAPPINESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of physical/sensual pleasure [both feeling and cause]

1. degree of spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented pleasure/contentment [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of emotional/psychological contentment/pleasure [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of happiness
(spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented) [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of physical satisfaction/satiety [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of emotional/psychological satisfaction and fulfillment [both feeling and cause]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘a pleasant visit’ or ‘a satisfying meal’

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘a happy home’ or ‘a fulfilling job’

Derivations:  gratify/gratification, satiety, ecstasy, joy

 

S-Ř   ‘PRIDE/EGO/RESPECT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. feel proud (of oneself); feeling of pride (in oneself)

1. self-esteem

2. feel proud (of someone); feeling of pride (of someone)

2. respect/admiration

3. one’s feelings/sensibilities (e.g., to hurt one’s feelings)

3. ego/sense of self-identity; to sense (some)one’s ego / to gain an impression of someone’s self-identity

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling

Morphological Derivatives:  arrogance/arrogant, haughtiness/haughty, pomposity/pompous, put on airs, vainglorious; magisterial/imperious

 

X-V    ‘DEGREE OF PAIN/LOSS/DISSATISFACTION/MISERY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of physical pain [both feeling and cause]

1. degree of spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented displeasure/discontent [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of emotional/psychological discontent/pain [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of unhappiness/misery
(spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented) [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of physical dissatisfaction/lack [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of emotional/psychological dissatisfaction and loss/lack [both feeling and cause]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘an unpleasant visit’ or ‘a terrible meal’

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘an unhappy home’ or ‘a miserable job’

 


CLASS 14 ROOTS: concepts of intersocial volition and personal relations

F-Z     ‘ATTRACTION

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. feel/be attracted to (physical attraction to other person)

1. feel/be attracted/drawn to (emotional-philosophical attraction to inanimate thing or abstraction, e.g., a political platform, buying a certain car, etc.)

2. feel/be attractive (physical attraction to other person)

2. be attractive/seductive (emotional-philosophical attraction to inanimate thing, idea or abstraction, e.g., a political platform, buying a certain car, etc.)

3. act/gesture indicating or hinting of attraction to; “(give) clue/hint” (physical attraction to other person)

3. “selling point” / a “pro” (vs. “con”)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of others

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of party feeling attraction

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of others

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of party feeling attraction

MORPHOLOGICAL Derivations:  seduce, seduction

 

H-Z    ‘ROMANTIC AND/OR SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.  state of sexual/romantic relationship

1. significant other / boyfriend or girlfriend

2.  erotic/sexual act; engage in a sexual/erotic activity

2. lover / sex partner

3.  to date / to court; pursue romantic relationship

3. dating partner

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. sexual/romantic relationship itself

1. emotional / hormonal basis underlying sexual relationship

1. boyfriend

1. girlfriend

2. sexual/erotic act itself

2. feeling of lust or other motive underlying sexual act

2. male lover

2. female lover

3. particular act involved in dating or courtship

3. feeling of hope or long-term goal of monogamous relationship or marriage underlying pursuit of romantic relationship

3. male dating partner

3. female dating partner

MORPHOLOGICAL Derivations:  have sex, make love, cheat, monogamous relationship

 

H-Ž   ‘CONFLICT-BASED HOSTILITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hostility / anger / be angry [both emotion and display/actions]

1. authoritative/official (i.e., police/military, etc.) use of force / act of aggression

2. threat(en) [reason for plus act]

2. threat of official/authoritative use of force

3. defend oneself / defense [reason for plus act]

3. official/authoritative defense

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. feeling of anger

1. show/display of anger

1. rationale/cause behind military agression

1. official/authoritative act of force/agression

2. cause/rationale for threat

2. effect of threat or being threatened

2. cause/rationale for official/authoritative/ military threat

2. effect of official/authoritative/ military threat or being threatened

3. situation/rationale for defensive act

3. defend / take defensive action

3. situation/rationale for official/authoritative/ military defensive act

3. defend / take official/authoritative/ military defensive action

Derivations:  peeved, conflict, intimidate, fight, battle, skirmish, military operation or campaign, war

 

K-Z     ‘TRANSFER OF POSSESSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. temporary, circumstantial, incidental direct transfer of possession (i.e., give / take)

1. quasi-permanent or official transfer of possession (i.e., rendering/reception; render, receive)

2. temporary, circumstantial, incidental indirect transfer (i.e., to leave for someone / to take based on discernment of availability)

2. quasi-permanent or official transfer (i.e., bestowal or bequest/acquisition; bestow/acquire)

3. temporary, circumstantial, incidental transfer over distance (i.e., to bring something / to leave with something)

3. deliver/take ownership of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. give, lend

1. take, borrow

1. donate; donation

1. receive; reception

2. leave (something for someone), make available

2. get, obtain

2. leave to heir

2. inherit; inheritance

3. thing given, gift (given)

3. thing taken, gift (taken)

3. bestow; bequest

3. acquire; acquisition

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  procure(ment), requisition, accept (= willingly receive)

 

L-Z     ‘MANAGE/GUIDANCE/COMPLIANCE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. guide / guideline + compliance

1. rule, precept + obedience

2. manage / direct + compliance

2. preside over / mete out law / govern + abidance

3. discipline + submission/obedience

3. moral guideline + personal rectitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. guide / guideline

1. follow guide / follow guideline

1. rule, precept

1. obey rule or precept

2. manage / direct

2. comply / follow direction(s)

2. preside over / met out law / govern

2. abide by law / obey law

3. apply discipline

3. submit to discipline

3. moral guideline

3. personal rectitude

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: guidance, management, morality, law, president, ruler; set of rules, steer, administer, order, drive; oversee, custom, “norm”, authority

 

N-Z - ‘SOCIAL INTERRELATION/INTERACTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act/state of social interaction/interrelation + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

1. expected/natural role of member of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

2. act/state of “dominant” or initiating partner in social interaction/relationship

2. expected/natural role of “dominant” or initiating partner of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

3. act/state of “passive” or secondary/complementary partner in social interaction/relationship

3. expected/natural role of “passive” or secondary or complementary partner of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems with focus on act/state of social interaction or interrelation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on benefits, consequences, or implications of act/state of social interaction or interrelation

Same as above 3 stems with focus on act/state of social interaction or interrelation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on benefits, consequences, or implications of act/state of social interaction or interrelation

Note:  The above root (and those immediately below) are likely to be used in conjunction with the various Valence categories (see Section XXX) to specify the exact nature of the relationship between the parties involved.  Note also that, for relationships where the parties are acting in equivalent roles or positions of equal stature (i.e., no “dominant” vs. “passive” roles), use of Stems 2 and 3 above would be inapplicable.

THE STEMS OF THE FOLLOWING ROOTS DESCRIBING SPECIFIC TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS ARE STRUCTURED IDENTICALLY WITH THE ROOT ABOVE:
Ķ-Ž   close loving friendship
x-cedilla-Z  business partnership
K-Ž   marriage
M-Z,  temporary or youthful romantic dalliance/lovers (with or without involving sex)
F-Ž   sexual partners
N-Z,  club members
Ţ-Ž   fellow hobbyists or enthusiasts
L-Z,  fan + celebrity
Ç-Ž   sage + disciples
Ņ -Z  “center of attention” + sycophants
X-Ž   master/servant
Ķ-Z  sibling relations
X,-Ž   fellowship, “band of brothers”, fraternity, sorority, etc.
Ţ-Z  members of secret society
S-Ž   members of stigmatized/isolated/oppressed societal group
Ç-Z  owner + pet
M-Ž   co-workers/associates
PL-Z  co-authors/creators of joint opus or artistic work
L-Ž   autocrat or autarch + subjects
TL-Z  official/agent of authority + supplicant/petitioner/applicant
Ņ-Ž   interviewer/interrogator + interviewee
KL-Z  seller + buyer
PL-Ž   members of same religion or belief system
FL-Z  members of holy order or spiritual fellowship
TL-Ž   members of business/executive management
ŢL-Z  strangers brought together by circumstances of the moment
KL-Ž   romantic love relationship
XL-Z  parent-child relationship
FL-Ž   relationship between business associates
Ŗ-Z  supervisor/boss + employee
ŢL-Ž   partners or team members in sporting match or sporting activity
Ļ-Z  adversaries or opposing team members in sporting match or sporting activity
XL-Ž   socially adversarial based on social one-upmanship/ego gratification
x-cedilla-Z,  socially adversarial based on enmity/hatred
PŢ-Ž   relationship based on compulsion/threat
X-Z,  adversarial based on a feud
KŢ -Ž   adversarial based on jealousy/coveting of one’s situation
Ç-Z,  adversarial based on material envy/coveting of one’s possessions
QŢ -Ž   enmity based on revenge
Ţ-Z,  adversarial based on anger/resentment
SL-Ž   allies
F-Z,  predator + prey
SP-Ž   invader + invadee
Q-Z,  co-participants in general activity
ST-Ž   matchmaker + parties being matched
Ņ-Z  member of couple being matched or “set up” with each other
SK-Ž   lender + borrower
Ķ-Z,  perpetrator + victim
SF-Ž   traders/barterers
K-Z,  lessor + lessee
SŢ-Ž   creditor + debtor
T-Z,  advisor + party seeking advise
SX-Ž   warring parties
P-Z,  entertainer/emcee + audience
R-Ž   speaker/speechmaker/presenter + audience

 

N-Ž    ‘MARITAL/SPOUSAL RELATIONSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.  state of marriage / marital state / state of being married

1. spouse

2. act of infidelity / extramarital liaison / to be unfaithful / to betray spouse

2. extramarital sex partner / mistress or gigolo

3.  betrothal / engagement; be betrothed, be engaged

3. fiancé(e) / being a fiancé(e)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1.  formal/legal state of marriage

1. emotional bond of love/fidelity underlying marriage

1. husband

1. wife

2. physical act of infidelity/betrayal

2. breaking of emotional bond underlying marriage

2. gigolo, kept man (male equivalent of mistress)

2. mistress

3. formal/legal status of being betrothed/engaged

3. emotional bond of love/fealty underlying betrothal/engagement

3. fiancé

3. fiancée

 

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  wed, wedded, marry, get married, marriage, wedding ceremony, cuckold (male or female)

 

P-Z     ‘EXCHANGE/PURCHASE’
Note: The stems below are generally used in conjunction with PROCESSUAL versus COMPLETIVE version (See Secs. 5.3.1 and 5.3.2) in order to distinguish an offer of exchange from a completed exchange. Alternately, the distinction between MONOACTIVE and COMPLEMENTARY valence (Sec. 5.2) can be used for the same purpose.

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exchange / swap

1. act of trade / act of barter

2. substitute / transpose / interchange

2. purchase / commercial transaction; buy(ing) and sell(ing)

3. change out / supplant / replace

3. invest(ment)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. exchange (focus on entity given)

1. exchange (focus on entity taken)

1. to trade for / acquire through trade; act of acquiring via trade

1. to trade away / give up through trade; act of given away via trade

2. substitute / transpose / interchange (focus on entity substituted into new function/place)

2. substitute / transpose / interchange (focus on entity substituted out of old function/place)

2. buy; acquisition via purchase

2. sell; act of selling

3. change out / supplant / replace (focus on entity newly placed)

3. change out / supplant / replace (focus on entity taken out of action)

3. acquire via investment; act of acquisition via investment

3. release interest in / sell one’s investment

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: commercial venture, a purchase, acquisition via trade, acquisition via investment; purvey, goods, thing sold, market, warehouse, buyer, seller, agent, business

 

P-Ž  - ‘MASTERY/AUTHORITY/SERVITUDE/OBEDIENCE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act/state of mastery/ownership/overlordship + servitude/subservience/subjugation to that mastery

1. military command/office + obedience/following of orders

2. act/state of supervision or formal oversight + following of orders/instructions

2. lordship, class-based rule/oversight by noble right + recognition/submission to that rule

3. take charge of; act/state of leadership + following that leadership

3. formal authorization, appointed/elected authority / political authority; being official, being authorized + recognition/compliance with that authority

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. act/state of mastery, ownership, overlordship

1. servitude, subservience, subjugation to mastery or overlordship

1. military command/office

1. obedience/following of military orders

2. act/state of supervision or formal oversight

2. following of orders or instructions from super-visor/overseer

2. lordship, class-based rule/oversight by noble claim or “right”

2. recognition/submission to claim of noble rule

3. take charge of; act/state of leadership

3. follow/obey a leader

3. formal authorization, appointed/elected authority / political authority; being official, being authorized

3. recognition/compliance with appointed, elected, official/political authority

Morphological derivatives: boss, supervisor, master, owner, lord, commander, leader, person-in-charge, officer
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  general, commodore, admiral, colonel, major, captain, lieutenant

 

Q-Ž  - ‘PSYCHOLOGICAL or PSYCHO-LINGUISTIC MANIPULATION/TREATMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to fool someone (into doing/believing something); state of being fooled

1. state of delusion (both state + content)

2. to “play games” (with someone) = mentally manipulate via words/behavior/actions; state of being toyed with mentally

2. means of psychiatric treatment; component of psychotherapy

3. be mesmerized, entranced (by something)

3. hypnotic state; be hypnotized

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

Derivations:  to delude, to hypnotize, to “do a number” on someone mentally, to entrance

 

R-Z    ‘EFFORT/WORK’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exert / expend energy

1. perform / operate / act / function

2. work / labor / effort

2. job task / employment-related task; perform job task

3. handiwork / craftsmanship

3. act of industry or enterprise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to activity itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to result/product

Same as above 3 stems referring to activity itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to result/product

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: strain, struggle, “fight”, toil, strenuous, persevere, operation, job, achievement, industry, enterprise, employment, employer, employee

 

T-Z   ‘OCCUPANCY/RESIDENCY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. entity present + presence

1. tenant + domicile

2. occupant + place occupied

2. resident + residence

3. denizen + claimed property

3. citizen + property

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. entity present

1. presence of entity

1. tenant

1. domicile

2. occupant

2. place occupied

2. resident

2. residence

3. denizen

3. claimed property

3. citizen

3. property

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: dwelling, quarters, population, community, town, village, city, hamlet, county, geopolitical area, state/province, nation, geopolitical bloc; nest, lair, den

 

T-Ž   ‘MANNERS/DECORUM/DIGNITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. well-mannered, well-behaved; display a sense of manners

1. decorum/cultural appropriateness; have/display a sense of decorum, politeness and civility

2. dignified; have/display a sense of dignity

2. courtly/stately/refined; stateliness

3. noble, distinguished, cultivated; have/display a noble, distinguished or cultivated air

3. aristocratic, well-bred; having/displaying a sense of aristocracy, nobility and breeding

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect

Morphological derivatives:  polite(ness); courtesy/courteous

 

X-Z   ‘GRATITUDE/THANKFULNESS/PRAISE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. thank(s) / offer gratitude due to unexpected favor or convenience performed

1. praise

2. thank(s) / offer gratitude due to being relieved/rescued from negative situation

2. gratefulness; feeling or manifestation of being beholden to someone or something [feeling is justified and an honor to be feeling]

3. thank(s) / offer gratitude within ironic circumstances or merely as a courtesy, i.e., where expectation of thanks is for an unwanted, unnecessary, or purely symbolic act or required little or no effort on doer’s part

3. feeling or manifestation of being beholden or obliged to someone or something [feeling is resented and unwanted]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on intent to convey gratitude

same as above 3 stems with focus on actual display of gratitude

same as above 3 stems with focus on desire/intent to convey the feeling

same as above 3 stems with focus on actual display of the feeling

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  worship, indebted(ness)

 


CLASS 15 ROOTS: concepts relating to existence, state, occurrence, subjectiveness

 

K-R  ‘APPEARANCE/SEMBLANCE/IMPRESSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. appear to be/seem/look as if/give (off) the impression of; appearance/semblance/impression

1. ostensible/ostensibly

2. on the face of it, on first blush

2. resemble, look like

3. on the surface/superficially/seemingly

3. façade, veneer

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing giving off the impression or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on affective impression to the observer

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing giving off the impression or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on affective impression to the observer

 

M-J   ‘HAPPEN/OCCUR(ENCE)/MANIFEST/EVENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. happen / occur / take place / to “pass”

1. step / act / action

2. manifest / be or make real / reify

2. phenomenon

3. event (spacio-temporal context)

3. incident

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical manifestation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect or consequence

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical manifestation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect or consequence

Various derivations from the above stems:  turn out, situation, chain of events, doings, process, phase, deed, result(s), consequence(s)

 

P-J   ‘EXISTENCE/ONTOLOGY/METAPHYSICS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exist objectively; something that exists; be(ing) [both ontological and metaphysical]

Same as INFORMAL stems except in reference to epistemological context [i.e., in relation to knowledge/awareness of ontological or metaphysical existence]

2. law of nature / existential axiom

3. natural/inherent

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to ontology / ontological aspect

same as above 3 stems referring to metaphysics / metaphysical aspect

 

K- z-bar    ‘TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRIT / RELIGION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. one’s spirit or soul / transcendent “connection” to the universe

1. religious belief

2. universal oneness / metaphysical interconnectedness between all things

2. feeling of religious fervor or zeal

3. striving/quest for ultimate destiny/purpose/”Omega point”

3. striving/quest for salvation/redemption/enlightment (specific to particular religion)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to ontological nature

same as above 3 stems referring to belief/faith therein

same as above 3 stems referring to ontological nature

same as above 3 stems referring to belief/faith therein

 

P-R  ‘APPEAR/MANIFEST/SHOW/EXHIBIT/DISPLAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. appear/manifest/show = be/make observable to the senses of others; manifestation, appearance

1. exhibit; display

2. expose; exposure

2. show off, flaunt

3. bring/call attention to = make others aware of the appearance/showing of something

3. announce; advertise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of manifestation/showing

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing manifested or shown

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of exhibiting or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing exhibited or displayed

Morphological derivations:  demonstrate, flourish, show off, display, spectacle, parade, promenade, procession, ostentation, gaudy, garish, pomp, pompous

 

SP-R   ‘MANNERCONDUCT/BEHAVIOR/DEMEANOR’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. manner (= the way something or someone acts or behaves)

1. method, the way something happens, course of action; conduct

2. guise, form; to take the form/guise of

2. behave/comport/conduct onself = outward display of one’s personality/thoughts/emotions/motives; behavior/conduct/deportment

3. practice/policy

3. bearing/carriage/demeanor

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the manner/form/practice itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect, impact or outcome

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the method or behavior itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect, impact or outcome

Morphological Derivatives:  process, procedure, regimen, strategy

 

X-J   ‘TEMPORARY ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon [physical occurrence + manifestation/effect]

1. zone of high or low barometric pressure relative to surrounding pressure

2. flash of lightning + peal of thunder [electrical phenomenon + associated sound]

2. cold or warm air front

3. cloud [in the sky]

3. eye of a storm

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon [physical occurrence]

1. manifestation/effect of momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon

1. low pressure zone

1. high pressure zone

2. flash of lightning

2. peal of thunder

2. cold air front

2. warm air front

3. cloud [in the sky] – physical occurrence

3. impact/effect of cloud [in the sky], e.g., its hiding of the sun, it causing zero visibility as a plane flies through it, etc.

3. eye of storm [physical occurrence]

3. short-lived calm/still conditions associated with the eye of a storm

 

CLASS 16 ROOTS: concepts relating to individual volition and choice

 

C-H     ‘PLAY/RECREATION/LEISURE’
(These stems are often used with the various Valence categories (Section 5.2) to specify the manner of participation)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. play/recreate/amuse oneself (activity + feeling of enjoyment derived) = self-involved activity, e.g., play w/ a toy, play hide-and-seek, etc.

1. play/recreate (activity + feeling of amusement/enjoyment derived) = formal rule-oriented activity, e.g., a board game, a sport, etc.

2. element of participitory or self-involved leisure activity (activity + feeling of enjoyment/relaxation derived), e.g., a dance, a hike, fishing, camping

2. attend/view a formal entertainment (activity + feeling of enjoyment/diversion derived), e.g., view a show, live performance, movie, a sporting event, etc.)

3. practice hobby or pastime (activity + feeling of enjoyment/relaxation derived)

3. engage in (a) sport activity (activity + feeling of competitive spirit) for motive of formal competition, e.g., victory-oriented

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the thing/activity being enjoyed, i.e., a toy, game or diversion

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling of amusement/enjoyment derived

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the thing/activity being enjoyed

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeeling of amusement/enjoyment derived

SSD Derivatives:
sports, toys, traditional board games, participitory outdoor games

 

Č-H     ‘DEGREE OF WAKEFULNESS OR CONSCIOUSNESS’
Note: Stems from this root are used in conjunction with various degree indicator affixes such as the EXN, EXD and SUF affixes from Sec. 7.7.6 in order to distinguish which polarity (awake vs. asleep) is implied.

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of consciousness or unconsciousness

1. degree of activity/vivaciousness/“energy”

2. degree of wakefulness or sleepiness

2. degree of dormancy or hibernation

3. degree of alertness/focus/attention/awareness or lack thereof

3. degree of personal intent/diligence/enterprise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. capacity for or faculty of consciousness

1. object/entity/thought of which one is conscious

1. state of activity / vivaciousness / liveliness / energy

1. object of activity / vivaciousness / liveliness / energy

2. capacity for or faculty of wakefulness/sleepiness

2. that which stimulates awakening or lulls into sleep

2. state of dormancy/hibernation

2. object of dormancy/hibernation

3. capacity for or faculty of alertness/attention/awareness

3. that to or of which one is alert/attentive/aware

3. state of personal intent/diligence/enterprise

3. object of one’s intent/diligence/enterprise

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: sleepy, listless(ness), grogginess, “fresh”, unconscious, dull, inattentive, vigilant, to “stir”, frisky, ardent, eager, persevere, bustling, zeal

 

P-H   ‘SEEK/SEARCH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. search, seek, look for something unknown [i.e., location/existence uncertain]

1. hunt, hunt for [i.e., location/existence uncertain]

2. search, seek, look for something lost [i.e., something known to exist which is missing]

2. pursue, track down [i.e., existence certain, location surmisable]

3. inspect

3. quest / seek to accomplish/achieve something

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to search/quest itself

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to thing being looked for or sought

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to search/quest itself

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to thing being looked for or sought

Morphological Derivations: find, scan, reconnoiter, ransack, pry, ferret out, winnow through, fulfill a quest

 

P-X     ‘WANT/DESIRE/REQUEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) want/desire [emotion + object of desire]

1. request [desire + thing requested]

2. conscious desire based on need/lack/goal

2. need/lack/necessity + thing needed or lacking

3. hope/wish [feeling + thing wished/hoped for]

3. ambition/goal/aspiration; aspire

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the feeling of desire

same as above 3 stems referring to the thing desired

same as above 3 stems referring to the feeling of desire/need

same as above 3 stems referring to the thing requested/needed

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: whim, fancy, inclination, appetite, “hunger”, greed, covet, propensity, aptness, eagerness, longing, crave, urge, passion, attract, tempt, persuade, allure, popularity, demand

Q-H - ‘HUNTING & GATHERING/PLANTING & HARVESTING/SUBSISTENCE FROM THE LAND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. searching for and gathering/collection of plants, vegetable matter for purposes of sustenance

1. plant/sow and harvest an annual crop

2. nomadic hunting/harvesting, subsistance-style nomadic sustenance [practices + products]

2. plant/sow and harvest a permanent seasonal crop (e.g., vines, trees, bushes, etc.)

3. live off the land [hunting/gathering practice + product(s) derived]

3. manage crop(s) and practice animal husbandry [sowing/raising + reaping/product(s) derived]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the hunting or gathering process

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the products hunted or gathered

1. till/plow & plant seeds or seedlings

1.  harvest/reap an annual crop

2. raise/grow a permanent seasonal crop

2. harvest/reap a permanent seasonal crop

3. raise/grow crop(s) & manage domesticated food-producing animal(s)

3. harvest/reap crop products and process/collect animal products

Morphological Derivations:  to farm, a farm, practice agriculture

 

T-H   ‘CHOICE/ALTERNTIVE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. choose/choice [from open selection]

1. select/pick [from limited selection]

2. prefer(ence)

2. alternative/option

3. settle (for)

3. vote [w/ CPT = elect]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of choosing/preferring

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on choice or preference made

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of choosing/preferring

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on choice or preference made

 

CLASS 17 ROOTS: temporal concepts

k-j + hacek    ‘DAY/NIGHT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. day [= 24-hour period]

same as for INFORMAL stems except applied to a particular date or scheduled day as in “my first day at work” or “Independence Day”

2. sky

3. degree of sunlight [use with EXN, EXD, SUF affixes, etc. from Sec. 7.7.6]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. daytime

1. nighttime

2. daytime sky

2. nighttime sky

3. daylight

3. natural darkness

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: dawn, sunrise, daybreak, evening, sunset, twilight, morning, evening, afternoon, mid-day, noontime, midnight, the “wee” hours [= Spanish ‘madrugada’]

 

M-Ķ   ‘TIME PERIOD/DURATION LESS THAN ONE DAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. moment/instant

1. ‘second’ [= basic unit of cyclic time, based on clapping of hands once together then once with back of hands together]

2. a ‘while’

2. ‘minute’ = 100 seconds

3. portion of a day

3. ‘hour’ = 100 minutes

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

SSD affix used with FORMAL stems by degree:  1) 1/100 of time period 2) 1/10 3) Ľ 4) ˝  5) exactly/precisely 6) twice the duration 7) 4 times 8) 10 times 9) 100 times

SSD affix used with INFORMAL Stem No. 3 by degree:  1) midnight to dawn period [Spanish ‘madrugada’] 2) dawn [use of CPT or TRM = ‘sunrise’] 3) early morning 4) morning 5) midday 6) afternoon [use of CPT or TRM = ‘sunset’] 7) twilight 8) evening 9) late night, from darkness till midnight

 

N-Ķ   ‘WAIT/AWAIT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. wait (for), await; waiting, a wait

1. vigil/a watch; be vigilant/watchful

2. expect; expectation; expected/impending

2. foresee; foresight; prospective/foreseeable

3. predict; prediction

3. prognosticate, forecast

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the process

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on what is awaited, expected, predicted

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the process

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on what is awaited, expected, predicted

 

P-Ķ   ‘TIME PERIOD/DURATION MORE THAN ONE DAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. expanse of time/period/duration more than 1 day

1. subjective long-term period/era

2. lunar period / month

2. geologic era

3. solar year

3. ‘lifetime’; timespan from beginning to end of something

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Use of SSD affix give equivalents to ‘decade’, ‘century,’ ‘millenium’, etc.

 

T-Ķ   ‘SEASON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. season, time of year

1.  social behavior/custom associated with particular season (e.g., celebration, recreation, vacation, etc.)

2. weather associated w/ particular season / seasonal weather

2. weather-determined practice/behavior/custom associated with particular season (e.g., migration, mating, nesting, hibernation, etc.)

3. cyclic state/condition of flora/fauna associated with a particular season

3. practice/behavior/custom relating to maintenance/upkeep of crops, game and other material resources associated with a particular season (e.g., foraging, hunting, planting, harvest, storage, etc.)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the timeframe itself relative to the greater annual cycle or calendar year

Same as above 3 stems referring to the context of the season itself irrespective of the greater annual cycle

Same as above 3 stems referring to the timeframe itself relative to the greater annual cycle or calendar year

Same as above 3 stems referring to the context of the season itself irrespective of the greater annual cycle

THE ABOVE PATTERN IS APPLIED TO FOLLOWING ROOTS:
R-Ķ    ‘SPRING’
L-Ķ    ‘SUMMER’
S-Ķ    ‘AUTUMN/FALL’
C -Ķ    ‘WINTER’
PS-Ķ    ‘TROPICAL RAINY SEASON’
TL-Ķ    ‘TROPICAL DRY SEASON’


  2 Morpho-Phonology  7a Using Affixes 12 The Number System
   3 Basic Morphology 7b Using Affixes (continued) The Lexicon
  4 Case Morphology   8 Adjuncts

©2004-2009 by John Quijada. You may copy or excerpt any portion of the contents of this website provided you give full attribution to the author and this website.