2 MorphoPhonology  7a Using Affixes  12 The Number System  
3 Basic Morphology  7b Using Affixes (continued)  The Lexicon  
4 Case Morphology  8 Adjuncts  Revised Ithkuil: Ilaksh 
V0  TPI 
Impact or Duration Over Time 
Degree 1  immediate / at this instant / for this moment; momentary  
Degree 2  temporary / for right now / for the moment; temporarily / in the meantime [duration of context. recent]  
Degree 3  short term/for now; in the short term/for now/ / for the immediate future [hours to days]  
Degree 4  for the meantime / for the meanwhile [days to weeks to months]  
Degree 5  for a while / for some time to come [months to several years]  
Degree 6  for the foreseeable future [years to decades]  
Degree 7  long term/in the long run; over the course of time [over the course of a lifetime, decades to centuries]  
Degree 8  through the ages / over the course of the ages [centuries to millenia]; permanent  
Degree 9  everpresent / eternal / constant / incessant / neverending; from now on / eternally / all the time / for all time 
V0ll  FRQ 
Degree Of Frequency 
Degree 1  never  
Degree 2  rare / hardly ever / once in a great while; rarely / almost unheard of  
Degree 3  infrequent; seldom / infrequently  
Degree 4  now and then / from time to time / off and on / every so often / now and again occasionally / sometimes  
Degree 5  frequent; frequently / often  
Degree 6  usual; usually / customarily / generally  
Degree 7  almost always / rarely fail to / routinely  
Degree 8  everfaithful / unwavering; always / every time / without fail / like clockwork / never fail to  
Degree 9  constant / continuous; constantly / continuously / all the time 
V1z  TPR 
Temporal Placement/Reaction/Viewpoint 
Degree 1  wistfully looking back / in the (good) old days [with longing]  
Degree 2  in hindsight / looking back  
Degree 3  upon further consideration/upon reflection  
Degree 4  initial; at first/initially / at first blush / at first glance  
Degree 5  now that the moment has come / now that the time is here / now that the deed or event is at hand  
Degree 6  any moment now; on the verge of; just about to  
Degree 7  imminent(ly) ; very soon  
Degree 8  soon [w/ anticipation]  
Degree 9  someday. . . / one day [with longing] 
V0q’  TPP 
Temporal Position Relative to Present 
Degree 1  in the remote past, once upon a time  
Degree 2  past/former/previous; once [e.g., I was young once], a long time ago  
Degree 3  recent; recently  
Degree 4  . . . just past / just (happened)  
Degree 5  present/current/present day; now / at present / presently / currently  
Degree 6  imminent; just about to / about to / on the verge of  
Degree 7  forthcoming / soon to arrive; soon  
Degree 8  future /  to be / to come / eventual(ly); someday...  
Degree 9  in the remote future / far in the future / long after we’re gone 
V0  ATC 
Degree Of Anticipation 
Degree 1  longawaited / long looked for  
Degree 2  eagerly awaited; can’t wait for / dying to  
Degree 3  anticipated / awaited; in anticipation of / look forward to  
Degree 4  up for / up to  
Degree 5  await / wait to / wait for / waiting to  
Degree 6  ambivalent about ; could take or leave it  
Degree 7  not looking forward to  
Degree 8  dreaded; dread Xing  
Degree 9  longdreaded; dread the day when 
V2z  LAT 
Degree Of Lateness/Earliness 
Degree 1  way too early / way too soon  
Degree 2  too early / too soon  
Degree 3  a little early / a bit soon  
Degree 4  almost late / not a moment too soon  
Degree 5  just in time / sharp / on the dot  
Degree 6  a little late  
Degree 7  late  
Degree 8  too late  
Degree 9  way too late 
V3nt  ITN 
Degree Of Iteration 
Degree 1  just once / once only  
Degree 2  again / once more / one more time / re  
Degree 3  again and again / keep Xing over and over [focus on habit, not periodicity]  
Degree 4  again and again / keep Xing over and over [focus on periodicity, not habit]  
Degree 5  irregular, unpredictable ; at irregular or unpredictable intervals  
Degree 6  [cyclic] return of... / ...once again; return to / …back again [e.g., summer’s back]  
Degree 7  intermittent; intermittently / at regular intervals  
Degree 8  repetitive / repeating; repeatedly  
Degree 9  constantly cycling or repeating / continuously or perpetually repeating / constant, eternal, perpetual repetition of 
V0  RPN 
Pattern of SpatioTemporal Repetition or Distribution of Set Members 
Degree 1  slowpaced repetition at regular intervals  
Degree 2  slowpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 3  slowpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 4  midpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 5  midpaced repetition at regular intervals  
Degree 6  midpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 7  fastpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 8  fastpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 9  fastpaced repetition at regular intervals 
VS  DGR 
Exactness of Degree 
Degree 1  unknowable degree or amount of  
Degree 2  unknown degree or amount of  
Degree 3  almost impossible to determine degree of  
Degree 4  nowhere near the desired degree of  
Degree 5  hard to pinpoint / hard to determine / difficult to determine  
Degree 6  fluctuating, everchanging (amount of); to changing/fluctuating degree or extent of  
Degree 7  vaguely around / vaguely in the range of / somewhere around / loosely in the vicinity of  
Degree 8  approximate(ly) / somewhere around / just about; or something like that / …or so  
Degree 9  exact/specific; exactly / specifically / on the dot / sharp / to the letter 
V1ss  PTW 
Contiguous Portion of the Whole 
Degree 1  no amount of / none (of)  
Degree 2  a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit  
Degree 3  few / a little / a bit; a little / a bit  
Degree 4  some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent  
Degree 5  a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent  
Degree 6  much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite; a lot / very much / to a large extent  
Degree 7  a whole lot of / a verly large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so  
Degree 8  most of / mostly  
Degree 9  every / all (of)/whole; entirely/in its entirety 
V2ss  PTT 
NonContiguous (i.e., Intermixed) Portion of the Whole 
Degree 1  no amount of / none (of)  
Degree 2  a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit  
Degree 3  few/a little / a bit; a little / a bit  
Degree 4  some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent  
Degree 5  a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent  
Degree 6  much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite /; a lot / very much / to a large extent  
Degree 7  a whole lot of / a very large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so  
Degree 8  most of / mostly  
Degree 9  every / all (of) / whole; entirely / in its entirety 
V3d  SUF 
Degree Of Sufficiency 
Degree 1  none at all; not…at all  
Degree 2  way too little / woefully insufficient / way too few; not...anywhere enough / totally under[+verb]  
Degree 3  not enough / insufficient / too few; not...enough / insufficiently / under[+verb]  
Degree 4  not quite enough / slightly insufficient; not...quite enough / a bit insufficiently / slightly under[+verb]  
Degree 5  enough (of) / sufficient; enough / sufficiently  
Degree 6  a little too / a little too much; a little too much / slightly over [+verb]  
Degree 7  too / toomuch; too much / too many / over [+verb]  
Degree 8  way too / way too much; way too much / totally over [+verb]  
Degree 9  inundated with; to the exclusion of all else / to the point that X overwhelms or takes over 
V3b  EXN 
Degree or Extent 
Degree 1  none (at all); to no extent at all  
Degree 2  tiniest part of / a bit of; to smallest extent / hardly / barely  
Degree 3  only a part of / only some of; to some extent / partially / partly / somewhat  
Degree 4  less than usual / below normal; less so than usual/ to a lesser degree or extent than usual  
Degree 5  the normal, expected or usual amount (of)  
Degree 6  more than usual / above normal; more so than usual; to a greater degree or extent than normal  
Degree 7  way more than usual / way above normal or expected; to a much greater degree or extent than normal  
Degree 8  almost as much as possible / near(ly) maximum  
Degree 9  total, ful; to greatest extent / maximum / maximal; maximally / at full capacity, e.g., She bought out the store. 
VSšq  EXD 
Dynamically Changing Degree or Extent 
Degree 1  less and less / fewer and fewer / ongoing decrease in; decreasingly  
Degree 2  a lot fewer / a lot less (of); a lot less  
Degree 3  fewer / less (of); less  
Degree 4  a little less (of) / a bit less (of); a little less / a bit less  
Degree 5  a fluctuating amount or degree of; to a fluctuating degree or extent  
Degree 6  a little more (of) / a bit more (of); a little more / a bit more  
Degree 7  more (of); more  
Degree 8  a lot more (of); a lot more  
Degree 9  more and more / continuing increase in / increasingly more / everincreasing 
This affix is used with all vectorlike or gradient concepts. When used with the COMPLETIVE version, degrees 1 and 9 imply attainment of a change in state, e.g., sleepiness sleep.
Vons  RCO 
Recoil in place (spring back; snap back; fall back into place) 
Von  TFI 
Back & forth; to & fro in place (e.g., pendulum, wagging tail) 
Vonš  TFV 
Back & forth over linear vector (e.g., snakelike; zigzag) 
Vonz  CRI 
Cycle or circular motion in place (spin, revolve) 
Von  CRV 
Cycle or circular motion over linear vector (e.g., train wheels, bike wheels) 
Vo  MDL 
Random pattern of modulation (unpredictable/irregular movement pattern) 
These affixes operate in conjunction with Phase (see Sec. 6.2) to describe contexts involving recoil, spring motion, oscillative, cyclic, reflective or vibrative motion, using the following degrees:
Degree 1  not enough  
Degree 2  hardly at all  
Degree 3  to a small degree  
Degree 4  to a less than normal degree  
Degree 5  to the normal / standard / usual degree  
Degree 6  to a greater than normal degree  
Degree 7  to a large degree  
Degree 8  to a very large degree  
Degree 9  too much / overly 
V3g  FLC 
Degree of Fluctuation/Stability 
Degree 1  inherently and consistently unstable and random to a high degree  
Degree 2  highly variable/random fluctuation or instability  
Degree 3  moderately variable/random fluctuation or instability  
Degree 4  increasing fluctuation or destabilization in pattern  
Degree 5  tending toward fluctuations and periods of instability  
Degree 6  decreasing fluctuation or instability in pattern = increasing stability  
Degree 7  moderately stable and lacking in fluctuations  
Degree 8  complete lack of fluctuation or instability; highly stable  
Degree 9  inherently and consistently stable 
VSf  ICR 
Increase 
VSft  DCR  Decrease 
VSht  ICD  Increase then Decrease 
VSkf  DCI  Decrease then Increase 
VSq  IDR  Random/Varying Increases and Decreases 
Used with the following degrees, the above five affixes operate to expand Phase into showing increases or decreases (or wavering) of intensity of an action during its duration.
Degree 1  so slowly as to seem immovable 
Degree 2  very slowly 
Degree 3  slowly 
Degree 4  somewhat slower than normal 
Degree 5  normal/usual/standard speed 
Degree 6  somewhat faster than normal 
Degree 7  fast/quickly 
Degree 8  very rapidly 
Degree 9  so rapidly as to be unable to follow 
V0fs  MVT 
Degree of Stillness/Movement 
Degree 1  unmovable – integrated  
Degree 2  unmovable due to mass  
Degree 3  not easily moved  
Degree 4  inclined to stillness  
Degree 5  holding still  
Degree 6  moving around slightly, stirring  
Degree 7  moving around in one place  
Degree 8  moving around, agitated  
Degree 9  highly agitated, unable to keep still 
V0x  SIZ 
Degree of Size 
Degree 1  too small  
Degree 2  very small/ very little/ miniscule/ tiny/ ittybitty;in a very small manner; barely/hardly  
Degree 3  small/little  
Degree 4  a little on the small size / undersized / petite  
Degree 5  a little on the large size / oversized / jumbo  
Degree 6  big/large; in a large manner  
Degree 7  very big/very large; in a very large manner  
Degree 8  enormous(ly) / huge(ly) / humoungous(ly) / gigantic(ally)  
Degree 9  too big / too large / too huge; in too large a manner 
V0  SCO 
Dynamic Change of Size 
Degree 1  smallest single manifestation of / particle of  
Degree 2  runaway shrinkage of / rapid disappearance or diminishment of  
Degree 3  solitary / only / sole / lone / unaccompanied; alone / by self / on his own / unaccompanied / solely  
Degree 4  decreasing / deescalating / shrinking  
Degree 5  compact/concentrated; in efficient or compact way [e.g., canyon gorge]  
Degree 6  expanded/enhanced; in expanded or enhanced way [e.g., canyon rift valley]  
Degree 7  growing, increasing, escalating  
Degree 8  runaway / runaway growth, increase or expansion of  
Degree 9  synergistic expansion e.g., hit (+ RCP valence) fight 
V0h  AFT 
Degree of Affect 
Degree 1  cute/darling / in a cute or darling manner  
Degree 2  too cute / schmaltzy / in a maudlin way  
Degree 3  kitschy / quaint(ly)  
Degree 4  dear, endearing(ly)  
Degree 5  lovely / elegant  
Degree 6  esteemed  
Degree 7  imperious / royal / most high / most excellent / revered  
Degree 8  too grand / too imperious  
Degree 9  great / grand; in a great / grand / grandiose manner 
V0  QUA 
Degree of Quality, Effectiveness or Adequacy 
Degree 1  too poor(ly); too badly  
Degree 2  very bad(ly) / very poor(ly) / very inadequate(ly) / intolerable / intolerably / terrible / terribly  
Degree 3  bad / poor / inadequate; badly / poorly / inadequately / wanting / lacking  
Degree 4  notsogood / could be better; somewhat poor(ly) or bad(ly) / somewhat wanting or lacking / below average  
Degree 5  notsobad / average; could be worse; soso / somewhat well / OK, I guess / adequate(ly) / acceptably  
Degree 6  good/effective; well/effectively/ more than adequate / aboveaverage  
Degree 7  very good / very effective(ly) / very well  
Degree 8  excellent(ly) / superb(ly) / outstanding(ly)  
Degree 9  astounding(ly) / amazing(ly) great or well / unbelievably excellent / absolutely superb(ly) / unsurpassable(ly) 
V0c  UNQ 
Degree of Specialness or Uniqueness 
Degree 1  vulgar, trashy, too cheap / in a vulgar or trashy manner  
Degree 2  cheap, tasteless, gaudy, gauche / in a cheap, gaudy, gauche or tasteless manner  
Degree 3  run of the mill / unexceptional / average / commonplace / ordinary; in a commonplace or unexceptional manner  
Degree 4  somewhat ordinary / somewhat common(place)  
Degree 5  somewhat special / somewhat out of the ordinary / interesting(ly) / intriguing(ly) / eyecatching / appealing(ly)  
Degree 6  special; epecially  
Degree 7  extraordinary / highly unusual; extraordinarily  
Degree 8  (one and) only/unique; in the only way / uniquely / unparallelled  
Degree 9  marvelous / wonderful / wondrous / awesome / aweinspiring 
V0  CNQ 
Degree of Consequentiality, Finality or Irrevocability 
Degree 1  inconsequential/sham/having no effect; like it didn’t even happen/with no effect  
Degree 2  relatively inconsequential / having little effect / easily reversible or undone / to little effect / minor / to minor degree  
Degree 3  somewhat inconsequential/having only some effect/reparable/reversible/to some effect / somewhat minor  
Degree 4  not so minor / somwhat significant degree / reversible with effort / having a somewhat significant impact or effect  
Degree 5  consequential / having a fair effect / reversible only with concerted effort / to good effect  
Degree 6  Overall / signifcant degree of; all in all / for the most part/to great effect / on the whole  
Degree 7  virtually total/near total; nearly for good/almost completely  
Degree 8  utter / complete / total; altogether / completely / for good / utterly / irrevocably for all intents and purposes  
Degree 9  for all time / forever / finally 
V0q  NTR 
Degree of Notoriety, Acceptance, Respect, Honor 
Degree 1  pariahlike / ostracized; in an alienating or selfostracizing manner  
Degree 2  infamous; infamously  
Degree 3  frownedupon / disapproved ; in a manner guaranteed to arouse disapproval  
Degree 4  tolerated; in a tolerated manner  
Degree 5  common / customary / expected / accepted; in an common, customary, expected, or accepted manner  
Degree 6  notorious(ly)  
Degree 7  wellknown / wellliked / well thought of; in a totally appropriate way / in a manner befitting a gentleman or lady  
Degree 8  respected / honored; respectfully / honorably  
Degree 9  highly praised / highly honored / highly esteemed / highly respected / most excellent / most honorable 
V0t  APR 
Degree of Contextual Appropriateness 
Degree 1  contemptable(ly) / utterly inappropriate(ly)  
Degree 2  scandalous(ly) / trashy(ly) / inappropriate(ly)  
Degree 3  illmannered / boorish(ly) / improper(ly) / tasteless(ly)  
Degree 4  eyebrowraising / questionable(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat improper(ly) / unorthodox(ically)  
Degree 6  acceptable(ly) / adequate(ly)  
Degree 7  appropriate(ly) / proper(ly) / correct(ly)  
Degree 8  utterly appropriate(ly), very proper(ly); strictly correct(ly)  
Degree 9  stuffy / orthodox / oldfashioned; utterly predictable(ly) 
V0  HRC 
Position on Social, Occupational, or (Para) Military Hierarchy 
Degree 1  bottom rung / the “dregs”  
Degree 2  rank & file  
Degree 3  lower echeleon  
Degree 4  lowermid  
Degree 5  midlevel  
Degree 6  upper mid  
Degree 7  upper echeleon  
Degree 8  senior  
Degree 9  head / chief / top / executive 
This affix, for example, would be used to distinguish the names of the various ranks within a military or paramilitary organization such as private, corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, etc. all the way up to general and supreme commander.
V0  FRM 
Degree of Formality 
Degree 1  too casual / overly casual  
Degree 2  very casual  
Degree 3  casual  
Degree 4  somewhat casual  
Degree 5  neither casual nor formal  
Degree 6  somewhat formal  
Degree 7  formal  
Degree 8  very formal  
Degree 9  too formal / overly formal 
V0j  TYP 
Degree of Typicalness 
Degree 1  unique / neverbeforeseen / one of a kind / shocking  
Degree 2  original / avantegarde; surprising(ly) / innovative(ly)  
Degree 3  atypical(ly) / unusual(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat atypical(ly) or unusual(ly)  
Degree 5  garden variety / runofthemill / typical(ly)  
Degree 6  expected / common; in a commonplace manner  
Degree 7  disappointingly typical; very typically  
Degree 8  unoriginal / mundane; in an uninspired way  
Degree 9  stereotyped / stereotypical(ly) 
V0  PTY 
Degree of Prototypicalness 
Degree 1  very dissimilar to prototype, very atypical member, closer to members of different set  
Degree 2  dissimilar to prototype, atypical member  
Degree 3  having noticeable dissimilarities from prototype  
Degree 4  somewhat dissimilar to prototype  
Degree 5  having unknown degree of closeness or similarity to prototype  
Degree 6  adequately similar to prototype  
Degree 7  as close to prototype as is typically found  
Degree 8  as close to prototype as possible  
Degree 9  prototype/archetype/model 
V0’  ITG 
Degree of Intelligence Manifested 
Degree 1  dumb / stupid / assinine; idiotic(ally) / moronic(ally)  
Degree 2  foolhearty / foolish(ly)  
Degree 3  illconceived(ly) / (in a) poorly thought out (way)  
Degree 4  naďve(ly) / simplistic(ally)  
Degree 5  wellintentioned but illconceived / reckless(ly); risky  
Degree 6  wellreasoned / intelligent(ly)  
Degree 7  innovative(ly) / daring [based on analysis and judgement]  
Degree 8  ingenious / brilliant  
Degree 9  wise(ly); [V2c’ = ‘philosophical(ly)] 
V0  MDN 
Degree of Age or Modernity 
Degree 1  prehistoric / proto  
Degree 2  ancient  
Degree 3  old (first) / archaic  
Degree 4  classic(al)  
Degree 5  oldfashioned; in the oldfashioned way  
Degree 6  “yesteryear”; in the era just passed; in the previous zeitgeist  
Degree 7  modern, contemporary, presentday  
Degree 8  innovative / trailblazing; innovatively, trailblazingly, cuttingedge  
Degree 9  avantgarde 
VSr  NA1 
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components 
VSl  NA2 
Negation/affirmation of stem + affixes but not adjunct information 
VS  NA3 
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components except Modality 
VS  NA4 
Negation/affirmation of all but aspectual or Modality information 
The above four affixes are used to affirm or negate a formative. Because much of the information associated with an Ithkuil formative is carried in adjuncts, the above affixes are used to indicate exactly which morphosemantic information is being affirmed or negated. For example, in English the sentences I don’t want to stop eating, I want to not stop eating, and I want to stop not eating mean different things. The above four affixes are used with the following degrees.
Degree 1  on the contrary…most cerainly does NOT/is NOT [absolute negation]; no X whatsoever; absolutely not = emphatic negation/denial  
Degree 2  on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [absolute negation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 3  on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [relative negation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 4  no; not [absolute negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (because I’m not in the race)  
Degree 5  no; not [relative negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (although I am in the race)  
Degree 6  almost / near(ly)  
Degree 7  hardly / barely  
Degree 8  …does (too) / is (too) [= simple affirmation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 9  …is indeed / does indeed / most certainly is / most certainly does [emphatic affirmation] 
V0  DEV 
Degree of Development 
Degree 1  reversal or undoing of process = ‘un’ / ‘de’ / ‘dis’  
Degree 2  reversal/undoing of process in large chunks = ‘un’ / ‘de’ / ‘dis’  
Degree 3  reversal little by little / a little at a time = entropic change in / slowly falling apart / unravelling  
Degree 4  moribund / stagnant; in a moribund or stagnant manner  
Degree 5  wellmaintained / wellkept / “healthy”; keep X going / maintain Xing  
Degree 6  one by one / one at a time / one after another  
Degree 7  little by little / a little at a time / bit by bit / a piece at a time  
Degree 8  by leaps and bounds / in large amounts at a time  
Degree 9  complete achievement now irreversible / set in stone 
V3pt  REA 
Degree of Genuineness or Veracity 
Degree 1  real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed [affirmation contrary to suggestion otherwise]  
Degree 2  real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed  
Degree 3  apparent / seeming / looks like a; apparently / appears to have / seems to have  
Degree 4  suspiciouslooking / ”fishy” seeming; presumably /allegedly / gives the appearance of having  
Degree 5  ersatz / facsimile; as an equivalent to  
Degree 6  substitute / replacement / proxy / fillin / placeholder; as a substitue or proxy for  
Degree 7  fake / pretend / mock; pretend to, fake Xing  
Degree 8  imaginary / unreal / madeup ; imagine Xing, not really Xing  
Degree 9  imaginary / unreal / madeup ; imagine Xing, not really Xing [contrary to suggestion otherwise] 
V3k  SCS 
Degree of Success versus Failure 
Degree 1  total failure in; completely fail to  
Degree 2  failed, wouldbe; unsuccessfully, fail to  
Degree 3  = INEFFECTUAL or INCOMPLETIVE version (see Sec. 5.3)  
Degree 4  certain to be a failed / certain to fail in  
Degree 5  marginally successful(ly) / barely, hardly [in terms of adequacy or success]  
Degree 6  certain to be a successful ; certain to succeed in  
Degree 7  = POSITIVE or EFFECTIVE version (see Sec. 5.3)  
Degree 8  successful(ly completed); successfully  
Degree 9  overwhelmingly successful(ly) 
V1v  CAP 
Degree of Potential or Capability 
Degree 1  utterly incapable / completely lacking in all necessary abilities or capacities  
Degree 2  underqualified; almost totally lacking in necessary abilities or capacities  
Degree 3  lacking in certain key capabilities; mostly inadequate to task  
Degree 4  possible but less than likely due to underdeveloped capabilities  
Degree 5  unknown if capable or not  
Degree 6  somewhat capable / has possible potential to perform  
Degree 7  sufficiently capable / adequate potential to perform  
Degree 8  fully capable; well within abilities  
Degree 9  overly qualified; more capable than necessary or required 
V2v *  PRB 
Degree of Probability or Likelihood * This affix takes a V3 affix form to apply its meaning to an adjacent suffix only. 
Degree 1  impossible / hopeless / lost cause  
Degree 2  almost no chance of / virtually impossible  
Degree 3  highly unlikely  
Degree 4  unlikely / improbable(ly)  
Degree 5  possible; possibly  
Degree 6  hopeful(ly)  
Degree 7  probable; probably  
Degree 8  highly probable / highly likely / certain to be a. . . certain to  
Degree 9  forgone conclusion that / in the can / done deal 
V0  STR 
Degree of Physical Strength Possible or Used 
Degree 1  barely / hardly / very weak(ly)  
Degree 2  weak(ly) / to small degree  
Degree 3  soft(ly) / guarded(ly)  
Degree 4  measured(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat powerful(ly)  
Degree 6  adequately strong; with adequate strength  
Degree 7  strong(ly) / powerful(ly)  
Degree 8  very strong(ly) / very powerful(ly)  
Degree 9  with maximum power 
V3ç  FRC 
Degree of Physical Force Exerted 
Degree 1  too light(ly) / too soft(ly) / too delicate(ly)  
Degree 2  light as a feather/ baby soft; extremely delicately or lightly or softly  
Degree 3  light/soft/hardly a; softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly  
Degree 4  somewhat on the light or soft side; somewhat softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly  
Degree 5  neither soft(ly) nor forceful(ly); with the right touch  
Degree 6  somewhat violent(ly) / somewhat forceful(ly)  
Degree 7  violent/forceful / rough; violently / with force / roughly  
Degree 8  very violent(ly) / very forceful(ly) / very rough(ly)  
Degree 9  too violent(ly) / too forceful(ly) / too rough(ly) 
V3sk  ITY 
Degree of Speed (i.e., Intensity of Movement or Change) 
Degree 1  too slow(ly)  
Degree 2  very slow(ly)  
Degree 3  slow(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly)  
Degree 5  at just the right speed or intensity  
Degree 6  somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)  
Degree 7  fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 8  very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 9  too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace 
V0st  SPD 
Degree of Speed (i.e., Velocity = Distance Over Time) 
Degree 1  too slow(ly)  
Degree 2  very slow(ly)  
Degree 3  slow(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly)  
Degree 5  at just the right speed  
Degree 6  somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)  
Degree 7  fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 8  very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly)/; at fast pace  
Degree 9  too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace 
V0  CFD 
Degree of Forthrightness, Confidence or Humility 
Degree 1  too meek(ly) / too submissive(ly) / too obedient(ly) / too docile(ly) 

Degree 2  very meek(ly) / very submissive(ly) / very obedient(ly) / very docile(ly)  
Degree 3  meek(ly) / submissive(ly) / obedient(ly) / docile(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat meek(ly) / somewhat submissive(ly) / somewhat obedient(ly) / somewhat docile(ly)  
Degree 5  properly humble / properly forthright ; with proper degree of humility or forthrightness  
Degree 6  somewhat confident(ly) / somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat definite(ly) / somewhat definitive(ly) or authoritative(ly)  
Degree 7  confident(ly) /strong(ly) / definite(ly)/ definitive(ly) / authoritative(ly)  
Degree 8  very confident(ly) / very strong(ly) / very definite(ly) / very definitive(ly) / very authoritative(ly)  
Degree 9  overconfident(ly) / too strong(ly) / too definite(ly) / too definitive(ly) / too authoritative(ly) 
V0  EFI 
Degree of Efficiency or Efficacy 
Degree 1  destructively wasteful / disastrous(ly) / accomplishing the opposite of intention / making things worse  
Degree 2  very wasteful / accomplishing nothing / making a mess of it  
Degree 3  wasteful / accomplishing little  
Degree 4  somewhat wasteful / accomplishing somewhat less than expected  
Degree 5  adequate(ly) [in terms of efficiency]  
Degree 6  rather efficient(ly) / fairly efficient(ly) / accomplishing somewhat more than expected  
Degree 7  efficient(ly) / with little or no waste(d effort)  
Degree 8  extremely efficient(ly) / with no waste(d effort) whatsoever  
Degree 9  a synergy of… / sum beyond total of parts / a synergistic composite of ; to X synergistically 
V3q  ERR 
Degree of Correctness versus Error 
Degree 1  totally wrong / totally mis or mal; totally in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)  
Degree 2  wrong/incorrect(ly) / mis / mal ; in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)  
Degree 3  fairly wrong / fairly incorrect(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat wrong / more wrong than right  
Degree 5  soso; barely adequate(ly) / barely correct(ly)  
Degree 6  somewhat right / more right than wrong  
Degree 7  fairly right / fairly correct(ly)  
Degree 8  right / correctly  
Degree 9  totally right / totally correct(ly) / totally wellX’d 
V0z  SBT 
Degree of Subtlety 
Degree 1  too subtle(ly)  
Degree 2  very subtle(ly)  
Degree 3  subtle(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat subtle(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat unsubtle(ly)  
Degree 6  unsubtle(ly) / lumbering(ly) rather obvious/ fairly blatant / belabored ; belabor / lumber along Xing  
Degree 7  obvious(ly) / blatant(ly) / exaggerated(ly)  
Degree 8  very obvious(ly) / very blatant(ly)  
Degree 9  overthetop / inyourface / to obvious(ly) / too blatant(ly) 
V1kš  DRC 
Degree of Directness 
Degree 1  too indirect(ly)  
Degree 2  very indirect(ly)  
Degree 3  indirect(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat indirect(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat direct(ly)  
Degree 6  fairly direct(ly) / rather direct(ly)  
Degree 7  direct(ly) / straightforward  
Degree 8  very direct(ly) / very straightforward  
Degree 9  too direct(ly) / painfully straightforward 
V0mš  SUD 
Degree of Suddenness 
Degree 1  too slow(ly) in happening, too long in Xing, overdue, delayed  
Degree 2  very slow(ly) in happening or developing  
Degree 3  slow(ly) ; long in developing or happening  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly) ; somewhat long in developing or happening  
Degree 5  taking just the right amount of time to develop or occur  
Degree 6  somewhat immediate / somewhat sudden; somewhat imediately / somewhat suddenly  
Degree 7  immediate / sudden; imediately / suddenly  
Degree 8  very immediate / very sudden; very imediately / very suddenly  
Degree 9  too immediate / too sudden; too imediately / too suddenly 
V0  PCN 
Degree of Care, Precision or Scrutiny 
Degree 1  utterly sloppy(ily) / totally careless(ly)  
Degree 2  very sloppy(ily) / very careless(ly)  
Degree 3  sloppy(ily) / careless(ly) / with poor attention to detail  
Degree 4  somewhat sloppy(ily) / somewhat careless(ly)  
Degree 5  less than careful(ly) / with only some degree of care  
Degree 6  somewhat careful(ly) / fairly precise(ly)  
Degree 7  precise(ly) / careful(ly) / detailed  
Degree 8  extremely precise(ly) / with great care or precision or scrutiny / meticulous(ly)  
Degree 9  overly precise(ly) / ‘nitpicky’ / with too much scrutiny / overly meticulous(ly) 
V2kš  CNC 
Degree of Concern or Consideration 
Degree 1  …the hell…! / what the hell . . . / . . . who cares  
Degree 2  selfcentered(ly) / without thought or concern for others  
Degree 3  at the very least / at the least level of concern required  
Degree 4  without concern / indifferent(ly) / without consideration / unconcerned(ly) / thoughtless(ly)  
Degree 5  reluctant(ly)  
Degree 6  at best / with the most concern one can muster  
Degree 7  concerned(ly) / with concern / with consideration for others  
Degree 8  very concerned(ly) / highly concerned(ly) / with great concern or consideration for others  
Degree 9  overly concerned(ly) / worrisome(ly) / with too much concern or consideration for others / altruistically 
V0  SPH 
Degree of Sophistication 
Degree 1  too crude(ly) / too primitive(ly)  
Degree 2  very crude(ly) / very primitive(ly)  
Degree 3  crude(ly) / primitive(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat crude(ly) / somewhat primitive(ly)  
Degree 5  with expected/normal degree or level of sophistication  
Degree 6  somewhat sophisticated or refined  
Degree 7  sophisticated or refined  
Degree 8  very sophisticated or refined  
Degree 9  too sophisticated or refined 
V0çt  CVT 
Degree of Covertness versus Overtness 
Degree 1  too secretive(ly) / overly covert(ly)  
Degree 2  very secretive(ly) / highly covert(ly) / hidden / well behind the scenes  
Degree 3  secretive(ly) / covert(ly) / behind the scenes / between the lines / under the table / “backroom”  
Degree 4  somewhat secretive(ly) / somewhat covert(ly)  
Degree 5  not too secretive(ly) / not so open(ly)  
Degree 6  somewhat open(ly) / somewhat “up front”  
Degree 7  open(ly) / overt(ly) / “up front” / out in the open / honest / forthcoming(ly)  
Degree 8  very open(ly) / very overt(ly) / very “up front” / flaunting(ly) / brutally honest  
Degree 9  too open(ly) / too overt(ly) / overly flaunting(ly) / vulgar(ly) 
V0  EFT 
Degree of Effort 
Degree 1  too difficult / overly difficult  
Degree 2  very difficult / so difficult  
Degree 3  strained / difficult; strain to / with difficulty / struggle to / to work at Xing / to X hard  
Degree 4  somewhat difficult / not that easy  
Degree 5  neither easy nor difficult  
Degree 6  somewhat easy; not so difficult  
Degree 7  easy / certain / unhindered / with ease / without resistance / effortlessly  
Degree 8  very easy / so easy  
Degree 9  too easy / overly easy 
V0m  DSG 
Degree of Design or Purposefulness 
Degree 1  purposeless(ly) /random(ly) / utterly unorganized / chaotic(ally)  
Degree 2  haphazard(ly) / without plan or guidance/ disorganized(ly) / poorly planned  
Degree 3  fairly haphazard(ly) / not wellplanned / not wellorganized  
Degree 4  somewhat haphazard(ly) / somewhat disorganized  
Degree 5  slightly disorganized / less than wellplanned  
Degree 6  somewhat organized / somewhat wellplanned  
Degree 7  organized(ly) / purposeful(ly) / wellplanned  
Degree 8  very organized / very structured  
Degree 9  too organized / overly structured / “anal(ly)” 
V3sq  DCS 
Degree of Decisiveness, Commitment or Emphasis 
Degree 1  indecisive / meandering; indecisively / first one way then another  
Degree 2  wishy washy / flaky  
Degree 3  some sort of / some kind of / sort of (like) / ”kind of”; in a way / halfway / does and doesn’t  
Degree 4  apparent(ly); seeming(ly)  
Degree 5  mere(ly) / only (a); merely / only  
Degree 6  deliberate / decisive; deliberately / decisively / purposefully  
Degree 7  a real / certainly a ; really / certainly [emphasis, not genuineness or veracity]  
Degree 8  the (one); in the only way that counts  
Degree 9  what (a) ...!; how . . .! ; Boy! Did (does) X ever … 
V3št  CTN 
Degree of Contrariness to Expectation(s) or Shift in Subject 
Degree 1  but X would… / if things were otherwise X WOULD… / on the contrary, X WOULD [affirmation of hypothetical contrary to statement/suggestion otherwise  
Degree 2  but / X DOES/IS . . . / on the contrary … [affirmation of fact contrary to suggestion or statement otherwise]  
Degree 3  like it or not…/ well, as much as we didn’t want to think it would happen...  
Degree 4  against expectation or belief ‘… after all’ ‘well, what do you know…X!’  
Degree 5  a genuine / real / true ; really do, [contrary to expectation]  
Degree 6  as a matter of fact  
Degree 7  ‘at least/at any rate’  
Degree 8  ‘by the way/ just to mention’  
Degree 9  not to change the subject but…/ sorry to change the subject, but…/ I don’t mean to change the subject, but… 
V3’  PHY 
Degree of Physical Control 
Degree 1  uncontrolled/helpless(ly) ; without control/ out of control  
Degree 2  almost completely out of control / almost totally helpless  
Degree 3  losing control / losing the ability to…  
Degree 4  insufficiently trained in...  
Degree 5  amateur(ishly) / superficially able to…  
Degree 6  learn(ing) to… / begin(ning) to be able to…  
Degree 7  w/ growing proficiency or expertise (in)  
Degree 8  proficient(ly)  
Degree 9  in full control / expert(ly) 
Many of these correspond to the vocalic modality suffixes used with valence or conflation adjuncts (see Sec. 5.5). The nine degrees associated with each affix allow a speaker control over the extent to which the modality category should apply to the utterance. These affix forms function, then, as an alternative to adjunct forms for greater nuance in the applicability of the modality category and to apply them to nouns. The nine degrees of each affix are as follows:
Degree 1  not at all  
Degree 2  to too little a degree; to an insufficient degree  
Degree 3  hardly at all  
Degree 4  to a small degree  
Degree 5  to a fair degree/somewhat  
Degree 6  fairly much/more so than not  
Degree 7  very much so / decidedly so / to a great degree  
Degree 8  too much so / to too great a degree  
Degree 9  to the exclusion of all else / without consideration for anything else 
The specific modality affixes are as follows:
V3bb  resigned to  
V3dd  devoted; committed to / devoted to  
V3  desired / soughtafter; want to  
V3  attempted, attempt at a …; try to, attempt to  
V3çç  capable, able; can / able to / capable of  
V3cc  knowledgeable; can = know how to / familiar with  
V3ff  mandatory; must / have to  
V3xx  required; should / be to  
V3  expected; be supposed to  
V3hh  intended; mean to / intend to / shall  
V3gg  chosen, selected; choose to / elect to  
V3  …on impulse; feel like Xing  
V3  promised; promise to  
V3  wellliked; like (to)  
V3  feared; fear (to)  
V3  willing; willing to  
V3  prepared / ready; prepared to/ready to  
V3  necessary / needed; need to  
V3  Daring; dare to  
V3hq  decidedupon; decide to  
V3pf  offered/offer of; offer to  
V33t  aided / assisted; help to / aid in Xing  
V3hk  not unexpected; be prone to / be apt to / tend to  
V3ç’  agreedupon; agree to  
V3x’  responsible for/in charge of  
V3  remember to  
V3  feel a need to / feel one should / feel one must / feel driven to  
V3  to guess or think [that]…  
V3’  available; available to/for  
V3kk  potential; can = have potential to  
V3tt  permitted; can = permitted to  
V3qq  hopedfor; hope/wish to  
V3pp  X by inclination; be inclined to 
V0n  AGC 
Degree of Agency 
Degree 1  [AGENT] = one who forces/causes  
Degree 2  [ENABLER] = one who enables to happen  
Degree 3  [INFLUENCE] = one who persuades/influences  
Degree 4  ENABLER BY PERMISSION] = one who permits/allows/lets happen  
Degree 5  [PATIENT] = one who does/is made to do  
Degree 6  [EXPERIENCER] = one who undergoes/experiences  
Degree 7  [INSTRUMENT] = instrument which causes  
Degree 8  [STIMULUS] = one whose status is as stimulus of affective experience  
Degree 9  [SOURCE] = that which gives rise to, provides underlying reason for, source of 
This affix and the following identify a formative as filling a specific semantic role corresponding in many cases to the semantic roles discussed in Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. In several instances, these affixes would translate the English “agentive” suffixes er, or or.
V0m  ROL 
Role 
Degree 1  that which contains or functions as the enclosure / container / house / shelter of or for  
Degree 2  that which results from  
Degree 3  [RECIPIENT] = one who receives / has / "ee"  
Degree 4  one who is / acts as / functions as  
Degree 5  one who is characterized by / described by...  
Degree 6  one who is similar to/functions or acts similarly to  
Degree 7  one whose responsibility is / who is responsible for / runs the business of (operationally speaking)  
Degree 8  one who constructs / makes / creates  
Degree 9  one who manages / oversees / supervises / coordinates / runs the business of (managerially speaking) 
V0p  UTE 
Utilitative or Enabling Means 
Degree 1  tool/device/apparatus specifically designed for Xing 

Degree 2  medium by/through which one X’s  
Degree 3  conduitlike tool/apparatus for Xing  
Degree 4  natural/standard body part for Xing  
Degree 5  object employed circumstantially as implement for Xing  
Degree 6  covering/protective element employed to allow/permit Xing  
Degree 7  enabling element/device/apparatus to allow/foster Xing  
Degree 8  environment/situaton/circumstances/setting which allows/fosters Xing  
Degree 9  FORCE which causes/permits Xing 
V0ž  CNS 
Degree of Consent 
Degree 1  deliberately without consent of knowledge  
Degree 2  without consent or knowledge as a precaution or “for their own good”  
Degree 3  without consent or knowledge due to circumstances  
Degree 4  with their knowledge but w/o consent; against their will  
Degree 5  consent obtained under pressure, threat, coercion  
Degree 6  w/ reluctant consent  
Degree 7  willingly; with full consent  
Degree 8  with enthusiastic approval and support  
Degree 9  at their request 
V0t  MEC 
Type of Mechanical Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  the body’s natural method of doing so (e.g., on foot, by hand, etc.)  
Degree 2  a manually manipulated generic tool or implement  
Degree 3  a specialized tool for that specific purpose or activity  
Degree 4  a machine or via mechanical means or process  
Degree 5  a virtual, electronic means or via engineering  
Degree 6  mental power, force of will, concentration  
Degree 7  a redirection or collation of energy specially applied  
Degree 8  a collective pooling of manual labor resources  
Degree 9  a collective pooling of electronic/mechanical/engineering resources 
V0  BOD 
Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  a hand 

Degree 2  an arm  
Degree 3  a foot  
Degree 4  a leg  
Degree 5  one’s eyes  
Degree 6  both legs  
Degree 7  both feet  
Degree 8  both arms  
Degree 9  both hands 
V0mp  DBI 
Additional Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  a finger 

Degree 2  a thumb  
Degree 3  a knee  
Degree 4  one’s head  
Degree 5  one’s teeth  
Degree 6  one’s lips  
Degree 7  one’s tongue  
Degree 8  one’s elbow  
Degree 9  one’s fingers 
V0  SOC 
Type of Social Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  via lackeys, grunt labor, gofors or henchmen  
Degree 2  by coercion, threat, blackmail  
Degree 3  “fronts”, or disguised gobetweens  
Degree 4  indirectly through actions of others (unbeknownst to them)  
Degree 5  indirectly through actions of others (with their knowledge)  
Degree 6  by leveraging existing resources / personnel (deploying existing methods in a new application)  
Degree 7  via a proxy or proxies  
Degree 8  hired help or staff  
Degree 9  by delegation of task to experts 
V0šš  RSN 
Reason for an Emotional State or Motivation for an Action 
Degree 1  for evil or perverse reasons  
Degree 2  for foolish or naďve reason  
Degree 3  due to deception by another  
Degree 4  due to faulty information provided by another [no deception intended]  
Degree 5  due to or based on faulty perception or misinterpretation of information or evidence  
Degree 6  despite negative circumstances or reasons not to  
Degree 7  for no reason  
Degree 8  for appropriate reasons / for good reason  
Degree 9  for virtuous, healthy reasons 
V0t  XPT 
Expectation of Outcome 
Degree 1  shockingly unexpected; without precedent or rumour  
Degree 2  surprise X / unexpected X; completely by surprise/ completely unexpected(ly)  
Degree 3  manage to X despite inadequacy of preparation or effort  
Degree 4  manage to X despite misguided or misdirected preparation or effort  
Degree 5  managed to X despite hindrance(s) or obstacles; hardwon  
Degree 6  manage to X due to hindrances or obstacles being overestimated; easier than thought to be  
Degree 7  manage to X due to excellent preparation / planning / execution  
Degree 8  completely as expected / totally as anticipated / as predicted  
Degree 9  pat; outcome preordained or predetermined 
V3t  DLB 
Degree of Deliberateness/Agency 
Degree 1  accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) and unaware of consequences  
Degree 2  unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to and unaware of consequences  
Degree 3  accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) but now aware of consequences  
Degree 4  unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to but now aware of consequences  
Degree 5  unforseeable / unpredictable; unforeseeably / unpredictably  
Degree 6  without realizing or considering potential consequences  
Degree 7  thinking one can get away without reaping consequences / furtive(ly)  
Degree 8  realizing potential risks or consequences / cognizant of potential risks or consequences  
Degree 9  intentional(ly) / deliberate(ly) / on purpose / by choice; choose to 
V0mz  MOT 
Degree of SelfConscious Deliberation or Motivation 
Degree 1  affected, ostentatious; affectedly/ostentatiously  
Degree 2  selfconscious(ly)  
Degree 3  guilty / guiltily  
Degree 4  halfhearted(ly)  
Degree 5  against better judgement / can’t help but / can’t help it  
Degree 6  ingrained, by upbringing  
Degree 7  learned / habitual; by habit / trained to  
Degree 8  natural(ly) / unselfconscious(ly)  
Degree 9  autonomic / unaware, automatic 
V11k  ENB 
Degree of Enablement 
Degree 1  by inadvertent gesture/word/sign taken as order or permission  
Degree 2  by granting of permission  
Degree 3  by cajoling or persuasion  
Degree 4  by direct request or imploring  
Degree 5  by direct order based on one’s real or perceived authority  
Degree 6  by inadvertent removal of hindrance  
Degree 7  by inadvertent action that initiates a chain of events  
Degree 8  by deliberate removal of hindrance  
Degree 9  by deliberate action that initiates a chain of events 
V0ms  AGN 
Degree of Agency, Intent or Effectiveness 
Degree 1  with the anticipated max. resulting effect possible  
Degree 2  with the anticipated resulting effect to a high degree  
Degree 3  with the anticipated resulting effect to a moderate degree  
Degree 4  with the anticipated resulting effect but only to a marginal, superficial or baredly noticable degree  
Degree 5  with no noticeable effect or resulting change  
Degree 6  with only marginal, superficial, or barely noticeable effect or resulting change unanticipated  
Degree 7  with moderate effect or resulting change — unanticipated  
Degree 8  with the resulting effect to a high degree — unanticipated  
Degree 9  with the max. resulting effect possible — unanticipated 
V21k  IMP 
Degree of Impact on Patient/Target or Enablement of Outcome 
Degree 1  target can do nothing  utterly inevitable  
Degree 2  target chooses to do nothing  resigned to fate  
Degree 3  target tries to prevent/avoid but fails  
Degree 4  target tries to prevent/avoid and does so partially or mitigates impact somewhat  
Degree 5  target tries to prevent/avoid and succeeds  
Degree 6  target helps/enables outcome inadvertently  
Degree 7  target helps/enables outcome against own interest (i.e., without thinking)  
Degree 8  target helps/enables outcome intentionally despite negative consequences  
Degree 9  target helps/enables outcome intentionally for own benefit 
V1_’  TPF 
Topic, Frame and Focus 
Degree 1  [sentence topic]  
Degree 2  [end of frame]  
Degree 3  [head of relative clause]  
Degree 4  [sentence topic + head of relative clause]  
Degree 5  [end of frame + head of relative clause]  
Degree 6  [sentence topic + end of frame]  
Degree 7  [sentence focus + end of frame + head of rel. clause]  
Degree 8  [sentence focus]  
Degree 9  [sentence focus + end of frame] 
The various functions of the above affix are explained in Sec. 3.5 on Focus, Sec. 5.7 on Frames, and Sec. 9.2 on pragmatic roles including Sentence Topic.
V2_’  SWR 
Switch Reference & Obviative Specification (For an explanation and illustration of this affix, see Sec. 8.1.1.7 and Sec. 8.1.4) 
Degree 1  nearest preceding referent  
Degree 2  2nd to nearest preceding referent  
Degree 3  3rd party not previously mentioned  
Degree 4  referring to sentence focus  
Degree 5  first referent mentioned  
Degree 6  referring to sentence topic  
Degree 7  3rd party nontransrelative referent  
Degree 8  2nd order transrelative referent  
Degree 9  higher order transrelative referent 
V0s  PLA 
Place, State, Setting Where… 
Degree 1  place where one learns to  
Degree 2  place where one does, performs, carries out X  
Degree 3  place where one obtains  
Degree 4  place where one stores or inventories  
Degree 5  place where one keeps or shelters  
Degree 6  place where one sees or views  
Degree 7  natural habitat or environment of  
Degree 8  place where one deals with/ treats/ confronts  
Degree 9  place where one feels affected by 
V1mm  APT 
Aspects 
Degree 1  yet, still  
Degree 2  ‘even’ as in “I don’t even like them” = in the least bit, to the slightest extent  
Degree 3  Contemplative: upon reflection/ in hindsight  
Degree 4  upon deep introspection / following careful consideration or meditation on the matter  
Degree 5  on first blush / at first / upon initial impression / [my] first thought is/was…  
Degree 6  natural(ly) / obvious(ly) / clear(ly) [in terms of naturalness, not blatancy]  
Degree 7  Experiential: ever  
Degree 8  Regressive: return to previous state  
Degree 9  Protractive: over a long period of time / longdelayed 
V2mm  TEM 
Alternative Temporal Aspects 
Degree 1  Inceptive: begin to / start to  
Degree 2  Resumptive: begin again / start again / resume  
Degree 3  Continuative: keep on / still / continue / stay / yet  
Degree 4  Incessative: to X away / not stop  
Degree 5  tire of Xing / get tired of Xing / become weary of Xing  
Degree 6  Cessative: stop / discontinue / cease  
Degree 7  Pausal: take a break from [stop with intention to resume]  
Degree 8  Recessative: stop again  
Degree 9  Terminative: finish / complete 
V1  DRV 
Format/Derivation Alternates 
Degree 1  Instrumentative Format  
Degree 2  Authoritative Format  
Degree 3  Precurrent Format  
Degree 4  Resultative Format  
Degree 5  Derivation: translative motion  
Degree 6  Subsequent Format  
Degree 7  Concommitant Format  
Degree 8  Objective Format  
Degree 9  Derivation: attend to, deal with 
The above affix forms function as alternates to the Format infix of a conflation
or valence adjunct (see Sec. 5.4.2). The SCHEMATIC format
is considered the default and therefore has no affix. Additionally, two of the
affixes refer to two common derivations (see Sec. 5.4.3).
V2  ILL 
Illocution/Mood/Validation Alternates 
Degree 1  Directive Illocution  
Degree 2  Commissive Illocution  
Degree 3  Expressive Illocution  
Degree 4  Declarative Illocution  
Degree 5  Interrogative Illocution  
Degree 6  Admonitive Illocution  
Degree 7  Subjunctive Mood  
Degree 8  Inferential Validation  
Degree 9  Hortative Validation 
V0š  PTG 
Part/Whole Gestalt Componential Metaphors 
Degree 1  “base”portion (e.g., upper arm)  
Degree 2  “extension” portion (e.g., forearm) or “flange”  
Degree 3  “trunk” or central bulk portion  
Degree 4  middle or divisional segment or joint  
Degree 5  top/upper component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement  
Degree 6  bottom/lower component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement  
Degree 7  side/flank/ lateral component  
Degree 8  “head” extension or main interface area  
Degree 9  extension/”arm” 
Metonymy is the reference to an entity via one of its attributes, associations
or activities, as in The hamandcheese wants fries with
his order or The White House has its nose in our business.
This affix is used to distinguish particular instantiations of a more generic
entity; their meaning is semantically specific to the particular stem.
V2t’  SBS 
Subset of Configurative Set 
Degree 1  single specific member (random, i.e., any given member)  
Degree 2  natural first level subset, e.g., a cell among a network, a clique within a club, a row of an orchard  
Degree 3  natural 2nd level subset, e.g., a section of a network, a subcommittee within a club, a section of an orchard  
Degree 4  complex natural system or pattern within a set (e.g., the circulatory system, the heating system)  
Degree 5  subset of set (unknown if natural or select subconfiguration)  
Degree 6  complex/circumstantial select pattern/arrangement within a set (e.g., the parts/things of a house damaged by fire)  
Degree 7  2nd level subset (externally determined), e.g., select section of trees of an orchard  
Degree 8  first level subset (externally determined), e.g., select rocks from a pile, select trees of an orchard  
Degree 9  single select member (externally determined) 
V1k’  ATN 
Degree of Attention or Determination 
Degree 1  concentrate fully upon; pay utmost attention to  
Degree 2  concentrate to point of distraction, to be ‘lost’ in Xing  
Degree 3  pay strict attention to  
Degree 4  determined to  
Degree 5  pay attention to; attend to; be careful that you…; heed  
Degree 6  keep an eye on  
Degree 7  take some notice of  
Degree 8  barely notice; take little notice of  
Degree 9  ignore completely 
V1šk  DPR 
Dispersion or Separability of a Configurative Set 
Degree 1  in total contact / contiguous mass of; pile, “ball of…”  
Degree 2  noncontiguous but closely connected, interlinked, each linked to adjacent via connecting medium (like web); cluster  
Degree 3  connected via intervening central medium (like a vine or branches); bunch  
Degree 4  not physically connected but with immediate accessibility and knowledge of other member actions  
Degree 5  scattered  contact with nearest member possible but less possible with others  
Degree 6  “virtual” association only  
Degree 7  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at long intervals  
Degree 8  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at frequent intervals  
Degree 9  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at very short, immediate intervals / one after another 
V1nd  SEP 
SpatioTemporal Separability of a Configurative Set 
Degree 1  Logical connectedness only (spatial) 

Degree 2  Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned far away from another  
Degree 3  Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned a little ways away from another  
Degree 4  Wellintegrated spatially – one positioned right next to or behind another  
Degree 5  Both spatially and temporally wellintegrated (one right after another)  
Degree 6  Wellintegrated temporally – one right after the other  
Degree 7  Loosely integrated temporally – one a little while after the other  
Degree 8  Loosely integrated temporally – one a long while after the other  
Degree 9  Logical connectedness only (temporal) 
V0k  SDP 
Subset of Duplex Set 
Degree 1  first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., upper lip, inhale/inhalation, left hand)  
Degree 2  beginning or leading “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 3  middle section of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 4  ending or trailing “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 5  midpoint, peak, or lull between the 2 halves of a duplex set or pair  
Degree 6  beginning or leading “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 7  middle section of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 8  ending or trailing “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 9  2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., lower lip, exhale/exhalation, right hand) 
V0xt  NEW 
Degree of Newness/Revision 
Degree 1  new = original + new, i.e., never before seen  
Degree 2  new = never before seen within current context, e.g., a new student  
Degree 3  new = role, i.e., never functioning/existing in this capacity/manner before  
Degree 4  new/other = replacement + new  
Degree 5  new/other = additional instance + new  
Degree 6  new/other = revision + additional  
Degree 7  new/other = revision + replacement  
Degree 8  new/other/different = different, not seen/used before within current context; status as addition/replacement unknown  
Degree 9  new/other/different = different + new; status as addition/replacement unknown 
V0 ln  SPR 
Spread/wake/trail/area/expanse created by passage of entity 
Degree 1  quasilinear “trail” or wake left behind on path of linear movement; trail or wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., slime trail left by snail, footprints left on snow, mowed down foliage left by moving convoy, etc.)  
Degree 2  quasilinear spread of entity stretching behind linearly moving “head” (e.g., a line of soldiers put in place to create a front, a line left on a piece of paper as written by an ink pen, path of a ball of string or skein of yarn as it unravels while rolling down an incline)  
Degree 3  quasilinear trail/wake/spread left behind passage as line of demarcation/boundary/barrier  
Degree 4  2d quasiplanar wake left behind on path of movement; wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., aftermath of a forest fire, cleaned area of dirty floor or wall after it has been wiped by a mop or dustcloth)  
Degree 5  2d quasiplanar spread stretching behind moving front (e.g., area of spreading flames in a forest fire, area being inundated by a flood, area of a wall being covered up by plaster by workmen, coating of an apple dipped in chocolate, area of floor covered up by a rug)  
Degree 6  2d quasiplanar wake/spread left behind passage as area of demarcation/zone/restricted area  
Degree 7  3d volume left behind a moving front; volume is not composed of or inundated with the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., area left behind the passage of a tidal wave, column of superheated air left behind the passage of a rocket  
Degree 8  3d volume inundated by spread of moving front (e.g., spread of a gas within a room, area inundated by fog, volume of a container taken up by substance placed/poured/stuffed into it)  
Degree 9  3d volume left behind passage of moving front as volume/spatial area of demarcation/zone/restricted space 
The above affix distinguishes movement of an entity from the “trail” or spread left behind, e.g., movement which leaves behind a wake or affected area; used with motion roots as well as roots designating shapes/forms. Use of the above suffixes in conjunction with the various roots pertaining to paths of translative movement allows for very nuanced translations of English words such as surround, cover, inundate, enclose, expand, spread out, encompass, etc.
V0 ld  TRA 
Degree of Shift/Change/Transition (used for both spatial and temporal contexts) 
Degree 1  sharp break, sudden shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another with no discernible transition period/zone (i.e., pointlike/instantaneous transition)  
Degree 2  disjointed/noncontiguous/noncontinuous break/shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 3  extremely brief/small/barely discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 4  somewhat brief/small/discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 5  normal/standard/expected transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 6  somewhat variable/changing/fluctuating transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 7  highly variable/chaotic transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 8  smooth, gradual transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 9  very gradual/almost imperceptible rate/degree of change/transition from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another 
V0 lm  NNN 
Nnumbered angles/facets/faces/sides/points/forms 
Degree 1  uneven /assymmetrical n–sided 2D obtusely angled form (e.g., quadrilateral, pentagonoid, hexagonoid  
Degree 2  uneven/assymetrical npointed 2D acutely angled “star” formation  
Degree 3  uneven/assymetrical nfaceted 3D solid  
Degree 4  uneven/assymmetrical nfaced 3D solid (e.g., nhedronlike solid)  
Degree 5  having n number of 3D projections/spikes/pointed surfaces  
Degree 6  symmetrical nfaced 3D solid (e.g., tetrahedron, dodecahedron)  
Degree 7  symetrical nfaceted 3D solid  
Degree 8  symetrical npointed 2D acutely angled “star” formation (can be used with numbers as low as 2, which would refer to an elongated diamond shape)  
Degree 9  symmetrical n–sided 2D form (e.g., square, pentagon, hexagon) 
The above affix is used with the number stems (see Chapter 12) to provide words for forms, shapes, and solids bearing a distinct number of angles, points, sides, facets, etc.
V0çç  LCT 
Locational Quadrant Markers for Object Being Located (These affixes will be explained and illustrated in Chapter 10.) 
Degree 1  +X / +Y / +Z = “right / ahead / above” = Quadrant 1  
Degree 2  +X / +Y / Z = “right / ahead / below” = Quadrant 2  
Degree 3  +X / Y / +Z = “right / behind / above” = Quadrant 3  
Degree 4  +X / Y / Z = “right / behind / below” = Quadrant 4  
Degree 5  object at rest relative to other object  
Degree 6  X / +Y / +Z = “left / ahead / above” = Quadrant 5  
Degree 7  X / +Y / Z = “left / ahead / below” = Quadrant 6  
Degree 8  X / Y / +Z = “left / behind / above” = Quadrant 7  
Degree 9  X / Y / Z = “left / behind / below” = Quadrant 8 
V0p’  PRX 
Degree of Proximity 
Degree 1  too close  
Degree 2  as close as possible without contact  
Degree 3  very close to  
Degree 4  close to  
Degree 5  somewhat close to  
Degree 6  not very close to / somewhat far from  
Degree 7  far from / distant from  
Degree 8  far away / very far from  
Degree 9  too far away 
V0  CTC 
Degree of Contact 
Degree 1  melded with / blended with / fused  
Degree 2  inseparable(ly) / locked together / bonded  
Degree 3  linked / attached / connected / joined  
Degree 4  touching intimately / touching all over / in close contact with  
Degree 5  deliberately touching at several spots or places or over a fair area  
Degree 6  deliberately touching at one spot or place  
Degree 7  casually or incidentally touching at several spots or places or over a fair area  
Degree 8  casually or incidentally touching at one spot or place  
Degree 9  barely touching / hardly touching at all / touching at one small spot 
Proceed to Chapter 8: Adjuncts >>
2 MorphoPhonology  7a Using Affixes  12 The Number System  
3 Basic Morphology  7b Using Affixes (continued)  The Lexicon  
4 Case Morphology  8 Adjuncts  Revised Ithkuil: Ilaksh 