Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language

5a Verb Morphology
9 Syntax
5b Verb Morphology (continued)
10 Lexico-Semantics
1 Phonology
6 More Verb Morphology
11 The Script
  2 Morpho-Phonology  7a Using Affixes 12 The Number System
   3 Basic Morphology 7b Using Affixes (continued) The Lexicon
  4 Case Morphology   8 Adjuncts Revised Ithkuil: Ilaksh


Chapter 7 (continued): Using Affixes

7.7.5 Temporal Affixes

Impact or Duration Over Time
Degree 1 immediate / at this instant / for this moment; momentary
Degree 2 temporary / for right now / for the moment; temporarily / in the meantime [duration of context. recent]
Degree 3 short term/for now; in the short term/for now/ / for the immediate future [hours to days]
Degree 4 for the meantime / for the meanwhile [days to weeks to months]
Degree 5 for a while / for some time to come [months to several years]
Degree 6 for the foreseeable future [years to decades]
Degree 7 long term/in the long run; over the course of time [over the course of a lifetime, decades to centuries]
Degree 8 through the ages / over the course of the ages [centuries to millenia]; permanent
Degree 9 ever-present / eternal / constant / incessant / neverending; from now on / eternally / all the time / for all time


Degree Of Frequency
Degree 1 never
Degree 2 rare / hardly ever / once in a great while; rarely / almost unheard of
Degree 3 infrequent; seldom / infrequently
Degree 4 now and then / from time to time / off and on / every so often / now and again occasionally / sometimes
Degree 5 frequent; frequently / often
Degree 6 usual; usually / customarily / generally
Degree 7 almost always / rarely fail to / routinely
Degree 8 ever-faithful / unwavering; always / every time / without fail / like clockwork / never fail to
Degree 9 constant / continuous; constantly / continuously / all the time


Temporal Placement/Reaction/Viewpoint
Degree 1 wistfully looking back / in the (good) old days [with longing]
Degree 2 in hindsight / looking back
Degree 3 upon further consideration/upon reflection
Degree 4 initial; at first/initially / at first blush / at first glance
Degree 5 now that the moment has come / now that the time is here / now that the deed or event is at hand
Degree 6 any moment now; on the verge of; just about to
Degree 7 imminent(ly) ; very soon
Degree 8 soon [w/ anticipation]
Degree 9 someday. . . / one day [with longing]


Temporal Position Relative to Present
Degree 1 in the remote past, once upon a time
Degree 2 past/former/previous; once [e.g., I was young once], a long time ago
Degree 3 recent; recently
Degree 4 . . . just past / just (happened)
Degree 5 present/current/present day; now / at present / presently / currently
Degree 6 imminent; just about to / about to / on the verge of
Degree 7 forthcoming / soon to arrive; soon
Degree 8 future / -- to be / --to come / eventual(ly); someday...
Degree 9 in the remote future / far in the future / long after we’re gone

Degree Of Anticipation
Degree 1 long-awaited / long looked for
Degree 2 eagerly awaited; can’t wait for / dying to
Degree 3 anticipated / awaited; in anticipation of / look forward to
Degree 4 up for / up to
Degree 5 await / wait to / wait for / waiting to
Degree 6 ambivalent about ; could take or leave it
Degree 7 not looking forward to
Degree 8 dreaded; dread X-ing
Degree 9 long-dreaded; dread the day when


Degree Of Lateness/Earliness
Degree 1 way too early / way too soon
Degree 2 too early / too soon
Degree 3 a little early / a bit soon
Degree 4 almost late / not a moment too soon
Degree 5 just in time / sharp / on the dot
Degree 6 a little late
Degree 7 late
Degree 8 too late
Degree 9 way too late

Degree Of Iteration
Degree 1 just once / once only
Degree 2 again / once more / one more time / re-
Degree 3 again and again / keep X-ing over and over [focus on habit, not periodicity]
Degree 4 again and again / keep X-ing over and over [focus on periodicity, not habit]
Degree 5 irregular, unpredictable ; at irregular or unpredictable intervals
Degree 6 [cyclic] return of... / ...once again; return to / …back again [e.g., summer’s back]
Degree 7 intermittent; intermittently / at regular intervals
Degree 8 repetitive / repeating; repeatedly
Degree 9 constantly cycling or repeating / continuously or perpetually repeating / constant, eternal, perpetual repetition of


Pattern of Spatio-Temporal Repetition or Distribution of Set Members
Degree 1 slow-paced repetition at regular intervals
Degree 2 slow-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 3 slow-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 4 mid-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 5 mid-paced repetition at regular intervals
Degree 6 mid-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 7 fast-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 8 fast-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 9 fast-paced repetition at regular intervals


7.7.6 Quantifying Affixes

Exactness of Degree
Degree 1 unknowable degree or amount of
Degree 2 unknown degree or amount of
Degree 3 almost impossible to determine degree of
Degree 4 nowhere near the desired degree of
Degree 5 hard to pinpoint / hard to determine / difficult to determine
Degree 6 fluctuating, ever-changing (amount of); to changing/fluctuating degree or extent of
Degree 7 vaguely around / vaguely in the range of / somewhere around / loosely in the vicinity of
Degree 8 approximate(ly) / somewhere around / just about; or something like that / …or so
Degree 9 exact/specific; exactly / specifically / on the dot / sharp / to the letter


Contiguous Portion of the Whole
Degree 1 no amount of / none (of)
Degree 2 a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit
Degree 3 few / a little / a bit; a little / a bit
Degree 4 some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent
Degree 5 a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent
Degree 6 much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite; a lot / very much / to a large extent
Degree 7 a whole lot of / a verly large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so
Degree 8 most of / mostly
Degree 9 every / all (of)/whole; entirely/in its entirety


Non-Contiguous (i.e., Intermixed) Portion of the Whole
Degree 1 no amount of / none (of)
Degree 2 a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit
Degree 3 few/a little / a bit; a little / a bit
Degree 4 some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent
Degree 5 a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent
Degree 6 much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite /; a lot / very much / to a large extent
Degree 7 a whole lot of / a very large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so
Degree 8 most of / mostly
Degree 9 every / all (of) / whole; entirely / in its entirety


Type of Container/Packaging/Conveyance/Holder
Degree 1 jar/pot of X [storage + containment]
Degree 2 dispensor-type container/package, e.g., tube, barrel, bottle for multiple use
Degree 3 can/tin/bottle/sealed pouch [= storage + packaging + protection/preservation]
Degree 4 carton/box/basket [= temporary containment]
Degree 5 natural or generic mass containment/packaging/holder (e.g., a loaf of bread, a lump of clay)
Degree 6 satchel, pack of [= for personal conveyance/moving]
Degree 7 pile of, load of [= in context of conveyance/moving or bulk storage]
Degree 8 X-ful of [+ Partitive], e.g., a roomful of clowns, a skyful of clouds, a treeful of leaves, a spoonful
Degree 9 embodiment/manifestation of abstract essence, e.g., a life form [= an embodiment of life]


Degree Of Sufficiency
Degree 1 none at all; not…at all
Degree 2 way too little / woefully insufficient / way too few; not...anywhere enough / totally under-[+verb]
Degree 3 not enough / insufficient / too few; not...enough / insufficiently / under-[+verb]
Degree 4 not quite enough / slightly insufficient; not...quite enough / a bit insufficiently / slightly under-[+verb]
Degree 5 enough (of) / sufficient; enough / sufficiently
Degree 6 a little too / a little too much; a little too much / slightly over- [+verb]
Degree 7 too / toomuch; too much / too many / over- [+verb]
Degree 8 way too / way too much; way too much / totally over- [+verb]
Degree 9 inundated with; to the exclusion of all else / to the point that X overwhelms or takes over


Degree or Extent
Degree 1 none (at all); to no extent at all
Degree 2 tiniest part of / a bit of; to smallest extent / hardly / barely
Degree 3 only a part of / only some of; to some extent / partially / partly / somewhat
Degree 4 less than usual / below normal; less so than usual/ to a lesser degree or extent than usual
Degree 5 the normal, expected or usual amount (of)
Degree 6 more than usual / above normal; more so than usual; to a greater degree or extent than normal
Degree 7 way more than usual / way above normal or expected; to a much greater degree or extent than normal
Degree 8 almost as much as possible / near(ly) maximum
Degree 9 total, -ful; to greatest extent / maximum / maximal; maximally / at full capacity, e.g., She bought out the store.

Dynamically Changing Degree or Extent
Degree 1 less and less / fewer and fewer / ongoing decrease in; decreasingly
Degree 2 a lot fewer / a lot less (of); a lot less
Degree 3 fewer / less (of); less
Degree 4 a little less (of) / a bit less (of); a little less / a bit less
Degree 5 a fluctuating amount or degree of; to a fluctuating degree or extent
Degree 6 a little more (of) / a bit more (of); a little more / a bit more
Degree 7 more (of); more
Degree 8 a lot more (of); a lot more
Degree 9 more and more / continuing increase in / increasingly more / ever-increasing

This affix is used with all vector-like or gradient concepts. When used with the COMPLETIVE version, degrees 1 and 9 imply attainment of a change in state, e.g., sleepiness sleep.

7.7.7 Modulative Affixes

Recoil in place (spring back; snap back; fall back into place)
Back & forth; to & fro in place (e.g., pendulum, wagging tail)
Back & forth over linear vector (e.g., snake-like; zig-zag)
Cycle or circular motion in place (spin, revolve)
Cycle or circular motion over linear vector (e.g., train wheels, bike wheels)
Random pattern of modulation (unpredictable/irregular movement pattern)

These affixes operate in conjunction with Phase (see Sec. 6.2) to describe contexts involving recoil, spring motion, oscillative, cyclic, reflective or vibrative motion, using the following degrees:

Degree 1 not enough
Degree 2 hardly at all
Degree 3 to a small degree
Degree 4 to a less than normal degree
Degree 5 to the normal / standard / usual degree
Degree 6 to a greater than normal degree
Degree 7 to a large degree
Degree 8 to a very large degree
Degree 9 too much / overly

Degree of Fluctuation/Stability
Degree 1 inherently and consistently unstable and random to a high degree
Degree 2 highly variable/random fluctuation or instability
Degree 3 moderately variable/random fluctuation or instability
Degree 4 increasing fluctuation or destabilization in pattern
Degree 5 tending toward fluctuations and periods of instability
Degree 6 decreasing fluctuation or instability in pattern = increasing stability
Degree 7 moderately stable and lacking in fluctuations
Degree 8 complete lack of fluctuation or instability; highly stable
Degree 9 inherently and consistently stable

-VSft DCR Decrease
-VSht ICD Increase then Decrease
-VSkf DCI Decrease then Increase
-VSq IDR Random/Varying Increases and Decreases 

Used with the following degrees, the above five affixes operate to expand Phase into showing increases or decreases (or wavering) of intensity of an action during its duration.

Degree 1 so slowly as to seem immovable
Degree 2 very slowly
Degree 3 slowly
Degree 4 somewhat slower than normal
Degree 5 normal/usual/standard speed
Degree 6 somewhat faster than normal
Degree 7 fast/quickly
Degree 8 very rapidly
Degree 9 so rapidly as to be unable to follow


Degree of Stillness/Movement
Degree 1 unmovable – integrated
Degree 2 unmovable due to mass
Degree 3 not easily moved
Degree 4 inclined to stillness
Degree 5 holding still
Degree 6 moving around slightly, stirring
Degree 7 moving around in one place
Degree 8 moving around, agitated
Degree 9 highly agitated, unable to keep still

7.7.8 Qualifying Affixes

Degree of Size
Degree 1 too small
Degree 2 very small/ very little/ miniscule/ tiny/ itty-bitty;in a very small manner; barely/hardly
Degree 3 small/little
Degree 4 a little on the small size / undersized / petite
Degree 5 a little on the large size / oversized / jumbo
Degree 6 big/large; in a large manner
Degree 7 very big/very large; in a very large manner
Degree 8 enormous(ly) / huge(ly) / humoungous(ly) / gigantic(ally)
Degree 9 too big / too large / too huge; in too large a manner

Dynamic Change of Size
Degree 1 smallest single manifestation of / particle of
Degree 2 runaway shrinkage of / rapid disappearance or diminishment of
Degree 3 solitary / only / sole / lone / unaccompanied; alone / by -self / on his own / unaccompanied / solely
Degree 4 decreasing / de-escalating / shrinking
Degree 5 compact/concentrated; in efficient or compact way [e.g., canyon gorge]
Degree 6 expanded/enhanced; in expanded or enhanced way [e.g., canyon rift valley]
Degree 7 growing, increasing, escalating
Degree 8 runaway / runaway growth, increase or expansion of
Degree 9 synergistic expansion e.g., hit (+ RCP valence) fight


Degree of Affect
Degree 1 cute/darling / in a cute or darling manner
Degree 2 too cute / schmaltzy / in a maudlin way
Degree 3 kitschy / quaint(ly)
Degree 4 dear, endearing(ly)
Degree 5 lovely / elegant
Degree 6 esteemed
Degree 7 imperious / royal / most high / most excellent / revered
Degree 8 too grand / too imperious
Degree 9 great / grand; in a great / grand / grandiose manner

Degree of Quality, Effectiveness or Adequacy
Degree 1 too poor(ly); too badly
Degree 2 very bad(ly) / very poor(ly) / very inadequate(ly) / intolerable / intolerably / terrible / terribly
Degree 3 bad / poor / inadequate; badly / poorly / inadequately / wanting / lacking
Degree 4 not-so-good / could be better; somewhat poor(ly) or bad(ly) / somewhat wanting or lacking / below average
Degree 5 not-so-bad / average; could be worse; so-so / somewhat well / OK, I guess / adequate(ly) / acceptably
Degree 6 good/effective; well/effectively/ more than adequate / above-average
Degree 7 very good / very effective(ly) / very well
Degree 8 excellent(ly) / superb(ly) / outstanding(ly)
Degree 9 astounding(ly) / amazing(ly) great or well / unbelievably excellent / absolutely superb(ly) / unsurpassable(ly)


Degree of Specialness or Uniqueness
Degree 1 vulgar, trashy, too cheap / in a vulgar or trashy manner
Degree 2 cheap, tasteless, gaudy, gauche / in a cheap, gaudy, gauche or tasteless manner
Degree 3 run of the mill / unexceptional / average / commonplace / ordinary; in a commonplace or unexceptional manner
Degree 4 somewhat ordinary / somewhat common(place)
Degree 5 somewhat special / somewhat out of the ordinary / interesting(ly) / intriguing(ly) / eye-catching / appealing(ly)
Degree 6 special; epecially
Degree 7 extraordinary / highly unusual; extraordinarily
Degree 8 (one and) only/unique; in the only way / uniquely / unparallelled
Degree 9 marvelous / wonderful / wondrous / awesome / awe-inspiring


Degree of Consequentiality, Finality or Irrevocability
Degree 1 inconsequential/sham/having no effect; like it didn’t even happen/with no effect
Degree 2 relatively inconsequential / having little effect / easily reversible or undone / to little effect / minor / to minor degree
Degree 3 somewhat inconsequential/having only some effect/reparable/reversible/to some effect / somewhat minor
Degree 4 not so minor / somwhat significant degree / reversible with effort / having a somewhat significant impact or effect
Degree 5 consequential / having a fair effect / reversible only with concerted effort / to good effect
Degree 6 Overall / signifcant degree of; all in all / for the most part/to great effect / on the whole
Degree 7 virtually total/near total; nearly for good/almost completely
Degree 8 utter / complete / total; altogether / completely / for good / utterly / irrevocably for all intents and purposes
Degree 9 for all time / forever / finally


Degree of Notoriety, Acceptance, Respect, Honor
Degree 1 pariah-like / ostracized; in an alienating or self-ostracizing manner
Degree 2 infamous; infamously
Degree 3 frowned-upon / disapproved ; in a manner guaranteed to arouse disapproval
Degree 4 tolerated; in a tolerated manner
Degree 5 common / customary / expected / accepted; in an common, customary, expected, or accepted manner
Degree 6 notorious(ly)
Degree 7 well-known / well-liked / well thought of; in a totally appropriate way / in a manner befitting a gentleman or lady
Degree 8 respected / honored; respectfully / honorably
Degree 9 highly praised / highly honored / highly esteemed / highly respected / most excellent / most honorable


Degree of Contextual Appropriateness
Degree 1 contemptable(-ly) / utterly inappropriate(ly)
Degree 2 scandalous(ly) / trashy(-ly) / inappropriate(ly)
Degree 3 ill-mannered / boorish(ly) / improper(ly) / tasteless(ly)
Degree 4 eyebrow-raising / questionable(-ly)
Degree 5 somewhat improper(ly) / unorthodox(ically)
Degree 6 acceptable(-ly) / adequate(ly)
Degree 7 appropriate(ly) / proper(ly) / correct(ly)
Degree 8 utterly appropriate(ly), very proper(ly); strictly correct(ly)
Degree 9 stuffy / orthodox / old-fashioned; utterly predictable(ly)


Position on Social, Occupational, or (Para-) Military Hierarchy
Degree 1 bottom rung / the “dregs”
Degree 2 rank & file
Degree 3 lower echeleon
Degree 4 lower-mid
Degree 5 mid-level
Degree 6 upper mid
Degree 7 upper echeleon
Degree 8 senior
Degree 9 head / chief / top / executive

This affix, for example, would be used to distinguish the names of the various ranks within a military or paramilitary organization such as private, corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, etc. all the way up to general and supreme commander.


Degree of Formality
Degree 1 too casual / overly casual
Degree 2 very casual
Degree 3 casual
Degree 4 somewhat casual
Degree 5 neither casual nor formal
Degree 6 somewhat formal
Degree 7 formal
Degree 8 very formal
Degree 9 too formal / overly formal

Degree of Typicalness
Degree 1 unique / never-before-seen / one of a kind / shocking
Degree 2 original / avante-garde; surprising(ly) / innovative(ly)
Degree 3 atypical(ly) / unusual(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat atypical(ly) or unusual(ly)
Degree 5 garden variety / run-of-the-mill / typical(ly)
Degree 6 expected / common; in a commonplace manner
Degree 7 disappointingly typical; very typically
Degree 8 unoriginal / mundane; in an uninspired way
Degree 9 stereotyped / stereotypical(ly)

Degree of Prototypicalness
Degree 1 very dissimilar to prototype, very atypical member, closer to members of different set
Degree 2 dissimilar to prototype, atypical member
Degree 3 having noticeable dissimilarities from prototype
Degree 4 somewhat dissimilar to prototype
Degree 5 having unknown degree of closeness or similarity to prototype
Degree 6 adequately similar to prototype
Degree 7 as close to prototype as is typically found
Degree 8 as close to prototype as possible
Degree 9 prototype/archetype/model


Degree of Intelligence Manifested
Degree 1 dumb / stupid / assinine; idiotic(ally) / moronic(ally)
Degree 2 foolhearty / foolish(ly)
Degree 3 ill-conceived(ly) / (in a) poorly thought out (way)
Degree 4 naïve(ly) / simplistic(ally)
Degree 5 well-intentioned but ill-conceived / reckless(ly); risky
Degree 6 well-reasoned / intelligent(ly)
Degree 7 innovative(ly) / daring [based on analysis and judgement]
Degree 8 ingenious / brilliant
Degree 9 wise(ly); [V2c’ = ‘philosophical(ly)]

Degree of Age or Modernity
Degree 1 prehistoric / proto-
Degree 2 ancient
Degree 3 old (first) / archaic
Degree 4 classic(al)
Degree 5 old-fashioned; in the old-fashioned way
Degree 6 “yesteryear”; in the era just passed; in the previous zeitgeist
Degree 7 modern, contemporary, present-day
Degree 8 innovative / trailblazing; innovatively, trailblazingly, cutting-edge
Degree 9 avant-garde


7.7.9 Modifying Affixes

Negation/affirmation of all morphological components
Negation/affirmation of stem + affixes but not adjunct information
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components except Modality
Negation/affirmation of all but aspectual or Modality information

The above four affixes are used to affirm or negate a formative. Because much of the information associated with an Ithkuil formative is carried in adjuncts, the above affixes are used to indicate exactly which morpho-semantic information is being affirmed or negated. For example, in English the sentences I don’t want to stop eating, I want to not stop eating, and I want to stop not eating mean different things. The above four affixes are used with the following degrees.

Degree 1 on the contrary…most cerainly does NOT/is NOT [absolute negation]; no X whatsoever; absolutely not = emphatic negation/denial
Degree 2 on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [absolute negation contrary to expectation]
Degree 3 on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [relative negation contrary to expectation]
Degree 4 no; not [absolute negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (because I’m not in the race)
Degree 5 no; not [relative negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (although I am in the race)
Degree 6 almost / near(ly)
Degree 7 hardly / barely
Degree 8 …does (too) / is (too) [= simple affirmation contrary to expectation]
Degree 9 …is indeed / does indeed / most certainly is / most certainly does [emphatic affirmation]

Degree of Development
Degree 1 reversal or undoing of process = ‘un-’ / ‘de-’ / ‘dis-’
Degree 2 reversal/undoing of process in large chunks = ‘un-’ / ‘de-’ / ‘dis-’
Degree 3 reversal little by little / a little at a time = entropic change in / slowly falling apart / unravelling
Degree 4 moribund / stagnant; in a moribund or stagnant manner
Degree 5 well-maintained / well-kept / “healthy”; keep X going / maintain X-ing
Degree 6 one by one / one at a time / one after another
Degree 7 little by little / a little at a time / bit by bit / a piece at a time
Degree 8 by leaps and bounds / in large amounts at a time
Degree 9 complete achievement now irreversible / set in stone


Degree of Genuineness or Veracity
Degree 1 real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed [affirmation contrary to suggestion otherwise]
Degree 2 real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed
Degree 3 apparent / seeming / looks like a; apparently / appears to have / seems to have
Degree 4 suspicious-looking / ”fishy” seeming; presumably /allegedly / gives the appearance of having
Degree 5 ersatz / facsimile; as an equivalent to
Degree 6 substitute / replacement / proxy / fill-in / placeholder; as a substitue or proxy for
Degree 7 fake / pretend / mock; pretend to, fake X-ing
Degree 8 imaginary / unreal / made-up ; imagine X-ing, not really X-ing
Degree 9 imaginary / unreal / made-up ; imagine X-ing, not really X-ing [contrary to suggestion otherwise]


Degree of Success versus Failure
Degree 1 total failure in; completely fail to
Degree 2 failed, would-be; unsuccessfully, fail to
Degree 3 = INEFFECTUAL or INCOMPLETIVE version (see Sec. 5.3)
Degree 4 certain to be a failed / certain to fail in
Degree 5 marginally successful(ly) / barely, hardly [in terms of adequacy or success]
Degree 6 certain to be a successful ; certain to succeed in
Degree 7 = POSITIVE or EFFECTIVE version (see Sec. 5.3)
Degree 8 successful(-ly completed); successfully
Degree 9 overwhelmingly successful(ly)

Degree of Potential or Capability
Degree 1 utterly incapable / completely lacking in all necessary abilities or capacities
Degree 2 underqualified; almost totally lacking in necessary abilities or capacities
Degree 3 lacking in certain key capabilities; mostly inadequate to task
Degree 4 possible but less than likely due to underdeveloped capabilities
Degree 5 unknown if capable or not
Degree 6 somewhat capable / has possible potential to perform
Degree 7 sufficiently capable / adequate potential to perform
Degree 8 fully capable; well within abilities
Degree 9 overly qualified; more capable than necessary or required

-V2v *
Degree of Probability or Likelihood
* This affix takes a -V3 affix form to apply its meaning to an adjacent suffix only.
Degree 1 impossible / hopeless / lost cause
Degree 2 almost no chance of / virtually impossible
Degree 3 highly unlikely
Degree 4 unlikely / improbable(ly)
Degree 5 possible; possibly
Degree 6 hopeful(ly)
Degree 7 probable; probably
Degree 8 highly probable / highly likely / certain to be a. . . certain to
Degree 9 forgone conclusion that / in the can / done deal


7.7.10 Adverbial Affixes

Degree of Physical Strength Possible or Used
Degree 1 barely / hardly / very weak(ly)
Degree 2 weak(ly) / to small degree
Degree 3 soft(ly) / guarded(ly)
Degree 4 measured(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat powerful(ly)
Degree 6 adequately strong; with adequate strength
Degree 7 strong(ly) / powerful(ly)
Degree 8 very strong(ly) / very powerful(ly)
Degree 9 with maximum power

Degree of Physical Force Exerted
Degree 1 too light(ly) / too soft(ly) / too delicate(ly)
Degree 2 light as a feather/ baby soft; extremely delicately or lightly or softly
Degree 3 light/soft/hardly a; softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly
Degree 4 somewhat on the light or soft side; somewhat softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly
Degree 5 neither soft(ly) nor forceful(ly); with the right touch
Degree 6 somewhat violent(ly) / somewhat forceful(ly)
Degree 7 violent/forceful / rough; violently / with force / roughly
Degree 8 very violent(ly) / very forceful(ly) / very rough(ly)
Degree 9 too violent(ly) / too forceful(ly) / too rough(ly)

Degree of Speed (i.e., Intensity of Movement or Change)
Degree 1 too slow(ly)
Degree 2 very slow(ly)
Degree 3 slow(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly)
Degree 5 at just the right speed or intensity
Degree 6 somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)
Degree 7 fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 8 very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 9 too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace

Degree of Speed (i.e., Velocity = Distance Over Time)
Degree 1 too slow(ly)
Degree 2 very slow(ly)
Degree 3 slow(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly)
Degree 5 at just the right speed
Degree 6 somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)
Degree 7 fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 8 very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly)/; at fast pace
Degree 9 too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace


Degree of Forthrightness, Confidence or Humility
Degree 1

too meek(ly) / too submissive(ly) / too obedient(ly) / too docile(ly)

Degree 2 very meek(ly) / very submissive(ly) / very obedient(ly) / very docile(ly)
Degree 3 meek(ly) / submissive(ly) / obedient(ly) / docile(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat meek(ly) / somewhat submissive(ly) / somewhat obedient(ly) / somewhat docile(ly)
Degree 5 properly humble / properly forthright ; with proper degree of humility or forthrightness
Degree 6 somewhat confident(ly) / somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat definite(ly) / somewhat definitive(ly) or authoritative(ly)
Degree 7 confident(ly) /strong(ly) / definite(ly)/ definitive(ly) / authoritative(ly)
Degree 8 very confident(ly) / very strong(ly) / very definite(ly) / very definitive(ly) / very authoritative(ly)
Degree 9 over-confident(ly) / too strong(ly) / too definite(ly) / too definitive(ly) / too authoritative(ly)

Degree of Efficiency or Efficacy
Degree 1 destructively wasteful / disastrous(ly) / accomplishing the opposite of intention / making things worse
Degree 2 very wasteful / accomplishing nothing / making a mess of it
Degree 3 wasteful / accomplishing little
Degree 4 somewhat wasteful / accomplishing somewhat less than expected
Degree 5 adequate(ly) [in terms of efficiency]
Degree 6 rather efficient(ly) / fairly efficient(ly) / accomplishing somewhat more than expected
Degree 7 efficient(ly) / with little or no waste(d effort)
Degree 8 extremely efficient(ly) / with no waste(d effort) whatsoever
Degree 9 a synergy of… / sum beyond total of parts / a synergistic composite of ; to X synergistically

Degree of Correctness versus Error
Degree 1 totally wrong / totally mis- or mal-; totally in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)
Degree 2 wrong/incorrect(ly) / mis- / mal- ; in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)
Degree 3 fairly wrong / fairly incorrect(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat wrong / more wrong than right
Degree 5 so-so; barely adequate(ly) / barely correct(ly)
Degree 6 somewhat right / more right than wrong
Degree 7 fairly right / fairly correct(ly)
Degree 8 right / correctly
Degree 9 totally right / totally correct(ly) / totally well-X’d


Degree of Maturation
Degree 1 undeveloped / immature(ly) / seed / embryo
Degree 2 under-developed / newborn [stage, not age] / seedling / baby
Degree 3 growing / budding / youthful / young
Degree 4 maturing / developing / getting stronger or bigger or more complex or sophisticated
Degree 5 fully developed / fully mature(d) / robust / ripe
Degree 6 overly developed / overripe / showing signs of wear and tear / stressed / under stress / fatigued
Degree 7 declining/fading; trail off/fade / getting softer or weaker / faded / decrepit / has-been / past one’s prime
Degree 8 disintegrating / utterly deteriorated / beyond repair or rehabilitation / irreparable / dying
Degree 9 dead / defunct / disintegrated


Degree of Subtlety
Degree 1 too subtle(ly)
Degree 2 very subtle(ly)
Degree 3 subtle(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat subtle(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat unsubtle(ly)
Degree 6 unsubtle(ly) / lumbering(ly) rather obvious/ fairly blatant / belabored ; belabor / lumber along X-ing
Degree 7 obvious(ly) / blatant(ly) / exaggerated(ly)
Degree 8 very obvious(ly) / very blatant(ly)
Degree 9 over-the-top / in-your-face / to obvious(ly) / too blatant(ly)


Degree of Directness
Degree 1 too indirect(ly)
Degree 2 very indirect(ly)
Degree 3 indirect(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat indirect(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat direct(ly)
Degree 6 fairly direct(ly) / rather direct(ly)
Degree 7 direct(ly) / straightforward
Degree 8 very direct(ly) / very straightforward
Degree 9 too direct(ly) / painfully straightforward

Degree of Suddenness
Degree 1 too slow(ly) in happening, too long in X-ing, overdue, delayed
Degree 2 very slow(ly) in happening or developing
Degree 3 slow(ly) ; long in developing or happening
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly) ; somewhat long in developing or happening
Degree 5 taking just the right amount of time to develop or occur
Degree 6 somewhat immediate / somewhat sudden; somewhat imediately / somewhat suddenly
Degree 7 immediate / sudden; imediately / suddenly
Degree 8 very immediate / very sudden; very imediately / very suddenly
Degree 9 too immediate / too sudden; too imediately / too suddenly


Degree of Care, Precision or Scrutiny
Degree 1 utterly sloppy(ily) / totally careless(ly)
Degree 2 very sloppy(ily) / very careless(ly)
Degree 3 sloppy(ily) / careless(ly) / with poor attention to detail
Degree 4 somewhat sloppy(ily) / somewhat careless(ly)
Degree 5 less than careful(ly) / with only some degree of care
Degree 6 somewhat careful(ly) / fairly precise(ly)
Degree 7 precise(ly) / careful(ly) / detailed
Degree 8 extremely precise(ly) / with great care or precision or scrutiny / meticulous(ly)
Degree 9 overly precise(ly) / ‘nit-picky’ / with too much scrutiny / overly meticulous(ly)


Degree of Concern or Consideration
Degree 1 …the hell…! / what the hell . . . / . . . who cares
Degree 2 self-centered(ly) / without thought or concern for others
Degree 3 at the very least / at the least level of concern required
Degree 4 without concern / indifferent(ly) / without consideration / unconcerned(ly) / thoughtless(ly)
Degree 5 reluctant(ly)
Degree 6 at best / with the most concern one can muster
Degree 7 concerned(ly) / with concern / with consideration for others
Degree 8 very concerned(ly) / highly concerned(ly) / with great concern or consideration for others
Degree 9 overly concerned(ly) / worrisome(ly) / with too much concern or consideration for others / altruistically

Degree of Sophistication
Degree 1 too crude(ly) / too primitive(ly)
Degree 2 very crude(ly) / very primitive(ly)
Degree 3 crude(ly) / primitive(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat crude(ly) / somewhat primitive(ly)
Degree 5 with expected/normal degree or level of sophistication
Degree 6 somewhat sophisticated or refined
Degree 7 sophisticated or refined
Degree 8 very sophisticated or refined
Degree 9 too sophisticated or refined

Degree of Covertness versus Overtness
Degree 1 too secretive(ly) / overly covert(ly)
Degree 2 very secretive(ly) / highly covert(ly) / hidden / well behind the scenes
Degree 3 secretive(ly) / covert(ly) / behind the scenes / between the lines / under the table / “back-room”
Degree 4 somewhat secretive(ly) / somewhat covert(ly)
Degree 5 not too secretive(ly) / not so open(ly)
Degree 6 somewhat open(ly) / somewhat “up front”
Degree 7 open(ly) / overt(ly) / “up front” / out in the open / honest / forthcoming(ly)
Degree 8 very open(ly) / very overt(ly) / very “up front” / flaunting(ly) / brutally honest
Degree 9 too open(ly) / too overt(ly) / overly flaunting(ly) / vulgar(ly)


Degree of Effort
Degree 1 too difficult / overly difficult
Degree 2 very difficult / so difficult
Degree 3 strained / difficult; strain to / with difficulty / struggle to / to work at X-ing / to X hard
Degree 4 somewhat difficult / not that easy
Degree 5 neither easy nor difficult
Degree 6 somewhat easy; not so difficult
Degree 7 easy / certain / unhindered / with ease / without resistance / effortlessly
Degree 8 very easy / so easy
Degree 9 too easy / overly easy

Degree of Design or Purposefulness
Degree 1 purposeless(ly) /random(ly) / utterly unorganized / chaotic(ally)
Degree 2 haphazard(ly) / without plan or guidance/ disorganized(ly) / poorly planned
Degree 3 fairly haphazard(ly) / not well-planned / not well-organized
Degree 4 somewhat haphazard(ly) / somewhat disorganized
Degree 5 slightly disorganized / less than well-planned
Degree 6 somewhat organized / somewhat well-planned
Degree 7 organized(ly) / purposeful(ly) / well-planned
Degree 8 very organized / very structured
Degree 9 too organized / overly structured / “anal(ly)”


Degree of Decisiveness, Commitment or Emphasis
Degree 1 indecisive / meandering; indecisively / first one way then another
Degree 2 wishy washy / flaky
Degree 3 some sort of / some kind of / sort of (like) / ”kind of”; in a way / halfway / does and doesn’t
Degree 4 apparent(ly); seeming(ly)
Degree 5 mere(ly) / only (a); merely / only
Degree 6 deliberate / decisive; deliberately / decisively / purposefully
Degree 7 a real / certainly a ; really / certainly [emphasis, not genuineness or veracity]
Degree 8 the (one); in the only way that counts
Degree 9 what (a) ...!; how . . .! ; Boy! Did (does) X ever …


Degree of Contrariness to Expectation(s) or Shift in Subject
Degree 1 but X would… / if things were otherwise X WOULD… / on the contrary, X WOULD [affirmation of hypothetical contrary to statement/suggestion otherwise
Degree 2 but / X DOES/IS . . . / on the contrary … [affirmation of fact contrary to suggestion or statement otherwise]
Degree 3 like it or not…/ well, as much as we didn’t want to think it would happen...
Degree 4 against expectation or belief ‘… after all’ ‘well, what do you know…X!’
Degree 5 a genuine / real / true ; really do, [contrary to expectation]
Degree 6 as a matter of fact
Degree 7 ‘at least/at any rate’
Degree 8 ‘by the way/ just to mention’
Degree 9 not to change the subject but…/ sorry to change the subject, but…/ I don’t mean to change the subject, but…


Degree of Physical Control
Degree 1 uncontrolled/helpless(ly) ; without control/ out of control
Degree 2 almost completely out of control / almost totally helpless
Degree 3 losing control / losing the ability to…
Degree 4 insufficiently trained in...
Degree 5 amateur(ishly) / superficially able to…
Degree 6 learn(ing) to… / begin(ning) to be able to…
Degree 7 w/ growing proficiency or expertise (in)
Degree 8 proficient(ly)
Degree 9 in full control / expert(ly)

7.7.11 Modality Affixes

Many of these correspond to the vocalic modality suffixes used with valence or conflation adjuncts (see Sec. 5.5). The nine degrees associated with each affix allow a speaker control over the extent to which the modality category should apply to the utterance. These affix forms function, then, as an alternative to adjunct forms for greater nuance in the applicability of the modality category and to apply them to nouns. The nine degrees of each affix are as follows:

Degree 1 not at all
Degree 2 to too little a degree; to an insufficient degree
Degree 3 hardly at all
Degree 4 to a small degree
Degree 5 to a fair degree/somewhat
Degree 6 fairly much/more so than not
Degree 7 very much so / decidedly so / to a great degree
Degree 8 too much so / to too great a degree
Degree 9 to the exclusion of all else / without consideration for anything else

The specific modality affixes are as follows:

resigned to
-V3dd   devoted; committed to / devoted to
-V3   desired / sought-after; want to
-V3   attempted, attempt at a …; try to, attempt to
-V3çç   capable, able; can / able to / capable of
-V3cc   knowledgeable; can = know how to / familiar with
-V3ff   mandatory; must / have to
-V3xx   required; should / be to
-V3   expected; be supposed to
-V3hh   intended; mean to / intend to / shall
-V3gg   chosen, selected; choose to / elect to
-V3   …on impulse; feel like X-ing
-V3   promised; promise to
-V3   well-liked; like (to)
-V3   feared; fear (to)
-V3   willing; willing to
-V3   prepared / ready; prepared to/ready to
-V3   necessary / needed; need to
-V3   Daring; dare to
-V3hq   decided-upon; decide to
-V3pf   offered/offer of; offer to
-V33t   aided / assisted; help to / aid in X-ing
-V3hk   not unexpected; be prone to / be apt to / tend to
-V3ç’   agreed-upon; agree to
-V3   responsible for/in charge of
-V3   remember to
-V3   feel a need to / feel one should / feel one must / feel driven to
-V3   to guess or think [that]…
-V3’   available; available to/for
-V3kk   potential; can = have potential to
-V3tt   permitted; can = permitted to
-V3qq   hoped-for; hope/wish to
-V3pp   X by inclination; be inclined to

7.7.12 Agential/Participant Affixes

Degree of Agency
Degree 1 [AGENT] = one who forces/causes
Degree 2 [ENABLER] = one who enables to happen
Degree 3 [INFLUENCE] = one who persuades/influences
Degree 4 ENABLER BY PERMISSION] = one who permits/allows/lets happen
Degree 5 [PATIENT] = one who does/is made to do
Degree 6 [EXPERIENCER] = one who undergoes/experiences
Degree 7 [INSTRUMENT] = instrument which causes
Degree 8 [STIMULUS] = one whose status is as stimulus of affective experience
Degree 9 [SOURCE] = that which gives rise to, provides underlying reason for, source of

This affix and the following identify a formative as filling a specific semantic role corresponding in many cases to the semantic roles discussed in Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. In several instances, these affixes would translate the English “agentive” suffixes -er, or -or.

Degree 1 that which contains or functions as the enclosure / container / house / shelter of or for
Degree 2 that which results from
Degree 3 [RECIPIENT] = one who receives / has / "-ee"
Degree 4 one who is / acts as / functions as
Degree 5 one who is characterized by / described by...
Degree 6 one who is similar to/functions or acts similarly to
Degree 7 one whose responsibility is / who is responsible for / runs the business of (operationally speaking)
Degree 8 one who constructs / makes / creates
Degree 9 one who manages / oversees / supervises / coordinates / runs the business of (managerially speaking)


Utilitative or Enabling Means
Degree 1

tool/device/apparatus specifically designed for X-ing

Degree 2 medium by/through which one X’s
Degree 3 conduit-like tool/apparatus for X-ing
Degree 4 natural/standard body part for X-ing
Degree 5 object employed circumstantially as implement for X-ing
Degree 6 covering/protective element employed to allow/permit X-ing
Degree 7 enabling element/device/apparatus to allow/foster X-ing
Degree 8 environment/situaton/circumstances/setting which allows/fosters X-ing
Degree 9 FORCE which causes/permits X-ing


Degree of Consent
Degree 1 deliberately without consent of knowledge
Degree 2 without consent or knowledge as a precaution or “for their own good”
Degree 3 without consent or knowledge due to circumstances
Degree 4 with their knowledge but w/o consent; against their will
Degree 5 consent obtained under pressure, threat, coercion
Degree 6 w/ reluctant consent
Degree 7 willingly; with full consent
Degree 8 with enthusiastic approval and support
Degree 9 at their request


Type of Mechanical Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1 the body’s natural method of doing so (e.g., on foot, by hand, etc.)
Degree 2 a manually manipulated generic tool or implement
Degree 3 a specialized tool for that specific purpose or activity
Degree 4 a machine or via mechanical means or process
Degree 5 a virtual, electronic means or via engineering
Degree 6 mental power, force of will, concentration
Degree 7 a redirection or collation of energy specially applied
Degree 8 a collective pooling of manual labor resources
Degree 9 a collective pooling of electronic/mechanical/engineering resources


Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1

a hand

Degree 2 an arm
Degree 3 a foot
Degree 4 a leg
Degree 5 one’s eyes
Degree 6 both legs
Degree 7 both feet
Degree 8 both arms
Degree 9 both hands


Additional Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1

a finger

Degree 2 a thumb
Degree 3 a knee
Degree 4 one’s head
Degree 5 one’s teeth
Degree 6 one’s lips
Degree 7 one’s tongue
Degree 8 one’s elbow
Degree 9 one’s fingers


Type of Social Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1 via lackeys, grunt labor, go-fors or henchmen
Degree 2 by coercion, threat, blackmail
Degree 3 “fronts”, or disguised go-betweens
Degree 4 indirectly through actions of others (unbeknownst to them)
Degree 5 indirectly through actions of others (with their knowledge)
Degree 6 by leveraging existing resources / personnel (deploying existing methods in a new application)
Degree 7 via a proxy or proxies
Degree 8 hired help or staff
Degree 9 by delegation of task to experts

Reason for an Emotional State or Motivation for an Action
Degree 1 for evil or perverse reasons
Degree 2 for foolish or naïve reason
Degree 3 due to deception by another
Degree 4 due to faulty information provided by another [no deception intended]
Degree 5 due to or based on faulty perception or misinterpretation of information or evidence
Degree 6 despite negative circumstances or reasons not to
Degree 7 for no reason
Degree 8 for appropriate reasons / for good reason
Degree 9 for virtuous, healthy reasons


Expectation of Outcome
Degree 1 shockingly unexpected; without precedent or rumour
Degree 2 surprise X / unexpected X; completely by surprise/ completely unexpected(ly)
Degree 3 manage to X despite inadequacy of preparation or effort
Degree 4 manage to X despite misguided or misdirected preparation or effort
Degree 5 managed to X despite hindrance(s) or obstacles; hard-won
Degree 6 manage to X due to hindrances or obstacles being overestimated; easier than thought to be
Degree 7 manage to X due to excellent preparation / planning / execution
Degree 8 completely as expected / totally as anticipated / as predicted
Degree 9 pat; outcome pre-ordained or predetermined


Degree of Deliberateness/Agency
Degree 1 accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) and unaware of consequences
Degree 2 unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to and unaware of consequences
Degree 3 accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) but now aware of consequences
Degree 4 unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to but now aware of consequences
Degree 5 unforseeable / unpredictable; unforeseeably / unpredictably
Degree 6 without realizing or considering potential consequences
Degree 7 thinking one can get away without reaping consequences / furtive(ly)
Degree 8 realizing potential risks or consequences / cognizant of potential risks or consequences
Degree 9 intentional(ly) / deliberate(ly) / on purpose / by choice; choose to


Degree of Self-Conscious Deliberation or Motivation
Degree 1 affected, ostentatious; affectedly/ostentatiously
Degree 2 self-conscious(ly)
Degree 3 guilty / guiltily
Degree 4 half-hearted(ly)
Degree 5 against better judgement / can’t help but / can’t help it
Degree 6 ingrained, by upbringing
Degree 7 learned / habitual; by habit / trained to
Degree 8 natural(ly) / un-self-conscious(ly)
Degree 9 autonomic / unaware, automatic

Degree of Enablement
Degree 1 by inadvertent gesture/word/sign taken as order or permission
Degree 2 by granting of permission
Degree 3 by cajoling or persuasion
Degree 4 by direct request or imploring
Degree 5 by direct order based on one’s real or perceived authority
Degree 6 by inadvertent removal of hindrance
Degree 7 by inadvertent action that initiates a chain of events
Degree 8 by deliberate removal of hindrance
Degree 9 by deliberate action that initiates a chain of events


Degree of Agency, Intent or Effectiveness
Degree 1 with the anticipated max. resulting effect possible
Degree 2 with the anticipated resulting effect to a high degree
Degree 3 with the anticipated resulting effect to a moderate degree
Degree 4 with the anticipated resulting effect but only to a marginal, superficial or baredly noticable degree
Degree 5 with no noticeable effect or resulting change
Degree 6 with only marginal, superficial, or barely noticeable effect or resulting change unanticipated
Degree 7 with moderate effect or resulting change — unanticipated
Degree 8 with the resulting effect to a high degree — unanticipated
Degree 9 with the max. resulting effect possible — unanticipated


Degree of Impact on Patient/Target or Enablement of Outcome
Degree 1 target can do nothing - utterly inevitable
Degree 2 target chooses to do nothing - resigned to fate
Degree 3 target tries to prevent/avoid but fails
Degree 4 target tries to prevent/avoid and does so partially or mitigates impact somewhat
Degree 5 target tries to prevent/avoid and succeeds
Degree 6 target helps/enables outcome inadvertently
Degree 7 target helps/enables outcome against own interest (i.e., without thinking)
Degree 8 target helps/enables outcome intentionally despite negative consequences
Degree 9 target helps/enables outcome intentionally for own benefit


7.7.13 Miscellaneous Affixes

Topic, Frame and Focus
Degree 1 [sentence topic]
Degree 2 [end of frame]
Degree 3 [head of relative clause]
Degree 4 [sentence topic + head of relative clause]
Degree 5 [end of frame + head of relative clause]
Degree 6 [sentence topic + end of frame]
Degree 7 [sentence focus + end of frame + head of rel. clause]
Degree 8 [sentence focus]
Degree 9 [sentence focus + end of frame]

The various functions of the above affix are explained in Sec. 3.5 on Focus, Sec. 5.7 on Frames, and Sec. 9.2 on pragmatic roles including Sentence Topic.

Switch Reference & Obviative Specification (For an explanation and illustration of this affix, see Sec. and Sec. 8.1.4)
Degree 1 nearest preceding referent
Degree 2 2nd to nearest preceding referent
Degree 3 3rd party not previously mentioned
Degree 4 referring to sentence focus
Degree 5 first referent mentioned
Degree 6 referring to sentence topic
Degree 7 3rd party non-transrelative referent
Degree 8 2nd order transrelative referent
Degree 9 higher order transrelative referent

Place, State, Setting Where…
Degree 1 place where one learns to
Degree 2 place where one does, performs, carries out X
Degree 3 place where one obtains
Degree 4 place where one stores or inventories
Degree 5 place where one keeps or shelters
Degree 6 place where one sees or views
Degree 7 natural habitat or environment of
Degree 8 place where one deals with/ treats/ confronts
Degree 9 place where one feels affected by

Degree 1 yet, still
Degree 2 ‘even’ as in “I don’t even like them” = in the least bit, to the slightest extent
Degree 3 Contemplative: upon reflection/ in hindsight
Degree 4 upon deep introspection / following careful consideration or meditation on the matter
Degree 5 on first blush / at first / upon initial impression / [my] first thought is/was…
Degree 6 natural(ly) / obvious(ly) / clear(ly) [in terms of naturalness, not blatancy]
Degree 7 Experiential: ever
Degree 8 Regressive: return to previous state
Degree 9 Protractive: over a long period of time / long-delayed


Alternative Temporal Aspects
Degree 1 Inceptive: begin to / start to
Degree 2 Resumptive: begin again / start again / resume
Degree 3 Continuative: keep on / still / continue / stay / yet
Degree 4 Incessative: to X away / not stop
Degree 5 tire of X-ing / get tired of X-ing / become weary of X-ing
Degree 6 Cessative: stop / discontinue / cease
Degree 7 Pausal: take a break from [stop with intention to re-sume]
Degree 8 Recessative: stop again
Degree 9 Terminative: finish / complete


Format/Derivation Alternates
Degree 1 Instrumentative Format
Degree 2 Authoritative Format
Degree 3 Precurrent Format
Degree 4 Resultative Format
Degree 5 Derivation: translative motion
Degree 6 Subsequent Format
Degree 7 Concommitant Format
Degree 8 Objective Format
Degree 9 Derivation: attend to, deal with

The above affix forms function as alternates to the Format infix of a conflation or valence adjunct (see Sec. 5.4.2). The SCHEMATIC format is considered the default and therefore has no affix. Additionally, two of the affixes refer to two common derivations (see Sec. 5.4.3).

Illocution/Mood/Validation Alternates
Degree 1 Directive Illocution
Degree 2 Commissive Illocution
Degree 3 Expressive Illocution
Degree 4 Declarative Illocution
Degree 5 Interrogative Illocution
Degree 6 Admonitive Illocution
Degree 7 Subjunctive Mood
Degree 8 Inferential Validation
Degree 9 Hortative Validation


Part/Whole Functional Metaphors
Degree 1 engine / motor / heart / pump / core / driver mechanism
Degree 2 brain / computer / chip / instruction set
Degree 3 input / feeder / access point
Degree 4 exit point / anus / exhaust / tailpipe / smokestack / vent
Degree 5 wing/ arm / branch / extensor / manipulator
Degree 6 support / leg / stand / base
Degree 7 skeleton / frame
Degree 8 wiring / conduits / plumbing
Degree 9 sensor / eye / ear / antennae


Part/Whole Gestalt Componential Metaphors
Degree 1 “base”portion (e.g., upper arm)
Degree 2 “extension” portion (e.g., forearm) or “flange”
Degree 3 “trunk” or central bulk portion
Degree 4 middle or divisional segment or joint
Degree 5 top/upper component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement
Degree 6 bottom/lower component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement
Degree 7 side/flank/ lateral component
Degree 8 “head” extension or main interface area
Degree 9 extension/”arm”

Metonymic Categories
Degree 1 part for whole
Degree 2 producer for product
Degree 3 object used or owned for user/owner
Degree 4 controller for controlled
Degree 5 institution for people responsible
Degree 6 place for inhabitants/occupants
Degree 7 place for event
Degree 8 place for institution
Degree 9 attribute or characteristic for owner

Metonymy is the reference to an entity via one of its attributes, associations or activities, as in The ham-and-cheese wants fries with his order or The White House has its nose in our business.

Stem-Specific Derivatives
Degree 1 derivative 1
Degree 2 derivative 2
Degree 3 derivative 3
Degree 4 derivative 4
Degree 5 derivative 5
Degree 6 derivative 6
Degree 7 derivative 7
Degree 8 derivative 8
Degree 9 derivative 9

This affix is used to distinguish particular instantiations of a more generic entity; their meaning is semantically specific to the particular stem.

Subset of Configurative Set
Degree 1 single specific member (random, i.e., any given member)
Degree 2 natural first level subset, e.g., a cell among a network, a clique within a club, a row of an orchard
Degree 3 natural 2nd level subset, e.g., a section of a network, a subcommittee within a club, a section of an orchard
Degree 4 complex natural system or pattern within a set (e.g., the circulatory system, the heating system)
Degree 5 subset of set (unknown if natural or select subconfiguration)
Degree 6 complex/circumstantial select pattern/arrangement within a set (e.g., the parts/things of a house damaged by fire)
Degree 7 2nd level subset (externally determined), e.g., select section of trees of an orchard
Degree 8 first level subset (externally determined), e.g., select rocks from a pile, select trees of an orchard
Degree 9 single select member (externally determined)


Degree of Attention or Determination
Degree 1 concentrate fully upon; pay utmost attention to
Degree 2 concentrate to point of distraction, to be ‘lost’ in X-ing
Degree 3 pay strict attention to
Degree 4 determined to
Degree 5 pay attention to; attend to; be careful that you…; heed
Degree 6 keep an eye on
Degree 7 take some notice of
Degree 8 barely notice; take little notice of
Degree 9 ignore completely

Dispersion or Separability of a Configurative Set
Degree 1 in total contact / contiguous mass of; pile, “ball of…”
Degree 2 non-contiguous but closely connected, interlinked, each linked to adjacent via connecting medium (like web); cluster
Degree 3 connected via intervening central medium (like a vine or branches); bunch
Degree 4 not physically connected but with immediate accessibility and knowledge of other member actions
Degree 5 scattered - contact with nearest member possible but less possible with others
Degree 6 “virtual” association only
Degree 7 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at long intervals
Degree 8 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at frequent intervals
Degree 9 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at very short, immediate intervals / one after another


Spatio-Temporal Separability of a Configurative Set
Degree 1

Logical connectedness only (spatial)

Degree 2 Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned far away from another
Degree 3 Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned a little ways away from another
Degree 4 Well-integrated spatially – one positioned right next to or behind another
Degree 5 Both spatially and temporally well-integrated (one right after another)
Degree 6 Well-integrated temporally – one right after the other
Degree 7 Loosely integrated temporally – one a little while after the other
Degree 8 Loosely integrated temporally – one a long while after the other
Degree 9 Logical connectedness only (temporal)

Subset of Duplex Set
Degree 1 first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., upper lip, inhale/inhalation, left hand)
Degree 2 beginning or leading “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 3 middle section of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 4 ending or trailing “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 5 midpoint, peak, or lull between the 2 halves of a duplex set or pair
Degree 6 beginning or leading “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 7 middle section of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 8 ending or trailing “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 9 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., lower lip, exhale/exhalation, right hand)


Degree of Newness/Revision
Degree 1 new = original + new, i.e., never before seen
Degree 2 new = never before seen within current context, e.g., a new student
Degree 3 new = role, i.e., never functioning/existing in this capacity/manner before
Degree 4 new/other = replacement + new
Degree 5 new/other = additional instance + new
Degree 6 new/other = revision + additional
Degree 7 new/other = revision + replacement
Degree 8 new/other/different = different, not seen/used before within current context; status as addition/replacement unknown
Degree 9 new/other/different = different + new; status as addition/replacement unknown


-V0 ln
Spread/wake/trail/area/expanse created by passage of entity
Degree 1 quasi-linear “trail” or wake left behind on path of linear movement; trail or wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., slime trail left by snail, footprints left on snow, mowed down foliage left by moving convoy, etc.)
Degree 2 quasi-linear spread of entity stretching behind linearly moving “head” (e.g., a line of soldiers put in place to create a front, a line left on a piece of paper as written by an ink pen, path of a ball of string or skein of yarn as it unravels while rolling down an incline)
Degree 3 quasi-linear trail/wake/spread left behind passage as line of demarcation/boundary/barrier
Degree 4 2-d quasi-planar wake left behind on path of movement; wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., aftermath of a forest fire, cleaned area of dirty floor or wall after it has been wiped by a mop or dustcloth)
Degree 5 2-d quasi-planar spread stretching behind moving front (e.g., area of spreading flames in a forest fire, area being inundated by a flood, area of a wall being covered up by plaster by workmen, coating of an apple dipped in chocolate, area of floor covered up by a rug)
Degree 6 2-d quasi-planar wake/spread left behind passage as area of demarcation/zone/restricted area
Degree 7 3-d volume left behind a moving front; volume is not composed of or inundated with the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., area left behind the passage of a tidal wave, column of superheated air left behind the passage of a rocket
Degree 8 3-d volume inundated by spread of moving front (e.g., spread of a gas within a room, area inundated by fog, volume of a container taken up by substance placed/poured/stuffed into it)
Degree 9 3-d volume left behind passage of moving front as volume/spatial area of demarcation/zone/restricted space

The above affix distinguishes movement of an entity from the “trail” or spread left behind, e.g., movement which leaves behind a wake or affected area; used with motion roots as well as roots designating shapes/forms. Use of the above suffixes in conjunction with the various roots pertaining to paths of translative movement allows for very nuanced translations of English words such as surround, cover, inundate, enclose, expand, spread out, encompass, etc.


-V0 ld
Degree of Shift/Change/Transition (used for both spatial and temporal contexts)
Degree 1 sharp break, sudden shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another with no discernible transition period/zone (i.e., point-like/instantaneous transition)
Degree 2 disjointed/non-contiguous/non-continuous break/shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 3 extremely brief/small/barely discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 4 somewhat brief/small/discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 5 normal/standard/expected transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 6 somewhat variable/changing/fluctuating transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 7 highly variable/chaotic transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 8 smooth, gradual transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 9 very gradual/almost imperceptible rate/degree of change/transition from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another


-V0 lm
N-numbered angles/facets/faces/sides/points/forms
Degree 1 uneven /assymmetrical n–sided 2-D obtusely angled form (e.g., quadrilateral, pentagonoid, hexagonoid
Degree 2 uneven/assymetrical n-pointed 2-D acutely angled “star” formation
Degree 3 uneven/assymetrical n-faceted 3-D solid
Degree 4 uneven/assymmetrical n-faced 3-D solid (e.g., n-hedron-like solid)
Degree 5 having n number of 3-D projections/spikes/pointed surfaces
Degree 6 symmetrical n-faced 3-D solid (e.g., tetrahedron, dodecahedron)
Degree 7 symetrical n-faceted 3-D solid
Degree 8 symetrical n-pointed 2-D acutely angled “star” formation (can be used with numbers as low as 2, which would refer to an elongated diamond shape)
Degree 9 symmetrical n–sided 2-D form (e.g., square, pentagon, hexagon)

The above affix is used with the number stems (see Chapter 12) to provide words for forms, shapes, and solids bearing a distinct number of angles, points, sides, facets, etc.

7.7.14 Locational Affixes

Locational Quadrant Markers for Object Being Located (These affixes will be explained and illustrated in Chapter 10.)
Degree 1 +X / +Y / +Z = “right / ahead / above” = Quadrant 1
Degree 2 +X / +Y / -Z = “right / ahead / below” = Quadrant 2
Degree 3 +X / -Y / +Z = “right / behind / above” = Quadrant 3
Degree 4 +X / -Y / -Z = “right / behind / below” = Quadrant 4
Degree 5 object at rest relative to other object
Degree 6 -X / +Y / +Z = “left / ahead / above” = Quadrant 5
Degree 7 -X / +Y / -Z = “left / ahead / below” = Quadrant 6
Degree 8 -X / -Y / +Z = “left / behind / above” = Quadrant 7
Degree 9 -X / -Y / -Z = “left / behind / below” = Quadrant 8


Degree of Proximity
Degree 1 too close
Degree 2 as close as possible without contact
Degree 3 very close to
Degree 4 close to
Degree 5 somewhat close to
Degree 6 not very close to / somewhat far from
Degree 7 far from / distant from
Degree 8 far away / very far from
Degree 9 too far away


Degree of Contact
Degree 1 melded with / blended with / fused
Degree 2 inseparable(ly) / locked together / bonded
Degree 3 linked / attached / connected / joined
Degree 4 touching intimately / touching all over / in close contact with
Degree 5 deliberately touching at several spots or places or over a fair area
Degree 6 deliberately touching at one spot or place
Degree 7 casually or incidentally touching at several spots or places or over a fair area
Degree 8 casually or incidentally touching at one spot or place
Degree 9 barely touching / hardly touching at all / touching at one small spot


Proceed to Chapter 8: Adjuncts >>

  2 Morpho-Phonology  7a Using Affixes 12 The Number System
   3 Basic Morphology 7b Using Affixes (continued) The Lexicon
  4 Case Morphology   8 Adjuncts Revised Ithkuil: Ilaksh

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